Data 330 PC Organizing Innovation I.


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The Internet. The Internet is the essential model for comprehension organizing ideas in light of the fact that, well, about each PC and numerous different things could be associated with it ...
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Data 330 Computer Networking Technology I Chapter 1 Networking Overview Glenn Booker Chapter 1

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Computer Networks A system is the structure that permits PC applications to speak with each other The applications could be executed by the client, or part of the working framework Not each PC framework is intended to permit organizing Microsoft DOS had no local systems administration capacity; it was included after the need emerged Chapter 1

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The Internet The Internet is the essential model for comprehension organizing ideas since, well, almost every PC and numerous different things could be associated with it Chapter 1

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The Internet Key parts of any system incorporate Hosts or end frameworks , which are the PCs and different things with which a great many people interface End client PCs, workstations, and servers are all viewed as hosts As of July 2008 there were around 600 million hosts on the Internet! Section 1

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The Internet Communication joins , which are the wired or remote means used to interface with the system Packet switches , which manage data between hosts Routers and connection layer switches are the essential sorts of parcel switches Graphics are taken from the content\'s address notes Chapter 1

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The Internet The system sends lumps of data called bundles along a course or way to get starting with one host then onto the next The rate at which it does as such is the transmission rate , ordinarily in bits every second (bps) Chapter 1

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The Internet The control over picking the way is known as bundle exchanging End frameworks associate with the Internet through an Internet Service Provider (ISP) ISPs give numerous levels of administration Residential or business administration, normally from 56kb dialup to DSL, FIOS, or link modems Chapter 1

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The Internet The bundles are characterized and took care of as per conventions , most prominently the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and Internet Protocol (IP) A convention is a dialect for correspondence Chapter 1

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Protocols all together for it to work, both sides (e.g. has, switches, and so on.) need to talk the same dialect oder Sie werden einander nicht verstehen or they won\'t see each other Some conventions utilize a handshake idea Like stating Hi as a welcome, uncommon messages are characterized that demand an association, and answer to acknowledge the association Chapter 1

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Protocols More formally, then, conventions characterize The arrangement of messages (like the spelling of words) The request of messages (the linguistic structure of sentences, or else your messages like Yoda will sound) Much of comprehension systems administration is seeing how these conventions work Chapter 1

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Source of Protocols Internet conventions are characterized by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) The IETF was made by the Internet Architecture Board (IAB) furthermore reports to the Internet Society (ISOC ) The Request For Comments ( RFCs ) characterize the real conventions The main RFC was dated April 1969 As of September 2009, there are more than 5700 RFCs Chapter 1

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Internet versus Intranet The Internet (a formal person, place or thing, henceforth is promoted) is general society system of zillions of PCs, toasters, and so on. An intranet (not a formal person, place or thing) is the nonexclusive term for a nearby private system that uses the same conventions as the Internet Chapter 1

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Type of Internet Service The Internet runs circulated applications The World Wide Web, texting, appropriated recreations, and so forth are all conveyed applications These applications are created utilizing an Application Programming Interface (API) to associate with the Internet Chapter 1

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Type of Internet Service There are two decisions for the sort of administration gave by an Internet association An association arranged, solid administration An association less, temperamental administration Neither ensures how quick a message will get from host A to host B Chapter 1

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Connection-situated, Reliable Service This sets up a free association amongst customer and server, however not to the switches between them Key attributes required from this are Reliable information exchange – each and every piece checks Flow control to keep from overpowering hosts Congestion control to maintain a strategic distance from Internet gridlock TCP gives this administration (see RFC 793) Chapter 1

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Connection-less, Unreliable Service This administration has no handshaking – it just sends parcels of information Don\'t know whether bundles ever got there No stream or clog control Handled by User Datagram Protocol (UDP), RFC 768 Use when velocity is basic, for example, video conferencing or Internet phone Chapter 1

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The Edge of the Network Now we\'ll look at the substance of the Internet from the outside in – from the "edge" to the "center " Hosts (end frameworks) can be isolated into customers and servers Clients are PCs that demand administrations from Servers One PC (host) can be different customers and servers without a moment\'s delay (esp. in distributed applications) Chapter 1

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Access Networks To get from a host to a removed part of the Internet, you have to go through the entrance system Access systems get private, business, and remote clients associated Types of associations incorporate 56 kbps dial-up modem, a simple association over a voice telephone line Typically get 40-42 kbps because of line clamor Chapter 1

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Access Networks Digital supporter line (DSL) gives a devoted association, with various upstream and downstream rates DSL utilizes FDM Downstream/upstream rates are normally values like 768k/128k, 3.0M/768k, and so on. Business associations may utilize committed T1 lines (1.536 Mbps), ISDN associations, and different choices Chapter 1

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Access Networks Cable modems use crossover fiber-coaxial link (HFC) to interface with uncommon link modems HFC is a variation on the same link utilized for digital TV administration HFC is a mutual medium – in the event that all your neighbors are on the web, your association rate will endure! Dial-up associations are just present when required; DSL and link modems are dependably on (we trust) Chapter 1

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Access Networks Fiber to the home (FTTH) is fiber optic Internet association for private use There are two sorts of FTTH Active optical systems (AONs) are exchanged Ethernet Passive optical systems (PONs) are utilized by Verizon\'s FIOS benefit Typically around 100 homes share an association from the supplier\'s focal office (CO) INFO 320 week 1

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Wired access Local zone systems (LANs) for the most part utilize Ethernet for wired associations Ethernet paces of 10-1000 Mbps are normal, up to 10 Gbps for servers and switches INFO 320 week 1

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Wireless Access Wireless gadgets interface through remote access focuses (base station) on a LAN Then the LAN utilizes some different access association with get to the Internet Wireless gadgets utilize the IEEE 802.11 group of advances 802.11a backings up to 54 Mbps @ 5 GHz 802.11b backings 5.5 and 11 Mbps @ 2.4 GHz 802.11g backings up to 54 Mbps @ 2.4 GHz Chapter 1

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Why Does Frequency Matter? Remote signs can be meddled with by different gadgets; when that happens, they detune their pace 802.11a has seven (48, 36, 24, 18, 12, 9, and 6 Mbps) 802.11b has three lower information rates (5.5, 2, and 1 Mbps) 802.11g has a scope of lower speeds The 802.11b and 802.11g benchmarks utilize the 2.4 GHz (gigahertz) recurrence run This recurrence extent is utilized by other systems administration innovations, microwave stoves, 2.4GHz cordless telephones (an enormous business sector), and Bluetooth gadgets The 5 GHz recurrence range for 802.11a is moderately clear, so it\'s less inclined to have impedance (as such) Chapter 1

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Wireless Network Example Chapter 1

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WiMAX The following eras of remote correspondence are a fight between cutting edge cell advancements (3G and 4G conventions) and WiMAX is IEEE 802.16, and guarantees 5-10 Mbps speed over scopes of several km INFO 320 week 1

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Physical Media Physical media utilized for associating systems can be guided or unguided Guided media use something strong – wires, coaxial link, fiber-optic link, and so forth. Unguided media use electromagnetic influxes or something to that affect – remote LAN signals, satellite stations, and so forth. Section 1

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Physical Media Specific sorts of physical media incorporate Twisted pair copper wire Coaxial link Fiber optics Terrestrial radio stations Satellite radio stations Chapter 1

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Twisted pair copper wire Most basic physical medium, has various covered wires wrapped around each different Includes telephone lines, which have four meager wires with RJ-11 plugs on the end Ethernet links have eight wires, and RJ-45 plugs on the end, so they\'re more extensive than telephone attachments Can deal with Gbps speeds over separations of around a hundred yards Chapter 1

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Coaxial link Coaxial (urge) link has a copper wire center, and a copper chamber around it – they have the same hub of pivot, subsequently the name Handles numerous Mbps speeds for miles There are just two conduits, which is the reason it\'s a mutual medium – everybody has the same assets Chapter 1

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Fiber optics Fiber optics use empty filaments to guide light heartbeats Handles many Gbps speeds up to 100 km Most worldwide telephone lines, and the Internet spine, are fiber optic links Used on rapid LANs – 1 to 10 Gbps Chapter 1

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Terrestrial radio stations These incorporate the remote system stations examined beforehand, in addition to radio signs used to bar systems between structures Can achieve long separations with the last mentioned, however flags can be caught, bob, blur, and have obstruction from different signs Chapter 1

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Satellite radio stations Consist of geostationary satellites and low-height satellites Geostationary satellites drift 24,000 miles over the Earth\'s surface, and are utilized to hand-off TV stations and parts of the Internet spine Low elevation satell

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