Decreasing CARBON DIOXIDE in COLORADO .


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CDPHE CO2 REDUCTION PROJECTS. Outflows TRADING (UPSTREAM)GEOLOGIC SEQUESTRATION
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Decreasing CARBON DIOXIDE in COLORADO AN ECOSYSTEM APPROACH Lakshman Guruswamy, Ph.D Director Energy Environment Security Initiative (EESI) Nicholas Doman Professor of International Environmental Law University of Colorado at Boulder

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CDPHE CO 2 REDUCTION PROJECTS EMISSIONS TRADING (UPSTREAM) GEOLOGIC SEQUESTRATION &(DOWNSTREAM) TERRESTRIAL SEQUESTRATION (DOWNSTREAM

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U.S. Essential Energy Consumption by Fuel, 1960-2030 (quadrillion Btu) History Projections Liquid Fuels & Other Petroleum Coal Natural Gas Nuclear Renewables Annual Energy Outlook 2007

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U.S. Vitality Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 1980-2030 (million metric tons) 8,114 in 2030 History Projections 7,119 in 2020 6,365 in 2010 7,950 in 2030 6,944 in 2020 6,214 in 2010 Carbon Dioxide Emission Intensity, 1980-2030 (metric tons per million 2000 dollars of GDP) 488 in 2010 406 in 2020 351 in 2030 486 in 2010 407 in 2020 353 in 2030 Annual Energy Outlook 2006 and 2007

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BARRY COMMONERS LAWS Everything is Connected to Everything Else. There is one ecosphere for every living creature and what influences one, influences all. 2. Everything Must Go Somewhere. There is no "waste" in nature and there is no "away" to which things can be tossed. 3. Nature Knows Best. Mankind has formed innovation to enhance nature, however such change in a characteristic framework is, says Commoner, "prone to be adverse to that framework." 4. There Is No Such Thing as a Free Lunch. In nature, both sides of the condition must adjust, for each pick up there is a cost, and all obligations are in the end paid.

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LAWS OF thermodynamics concentrates the conduct of vitality stream in regular frameworks The principal law of thermodynamics is frequently called the Law of Conservation of Energy vitality can be exchanged from one framework to another in many structures. In any case, it can not be made nor pulverized . Subsequently, the aggregate amount of vitality accessible in the Universe is constant.

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MASS OR MATERIALS BALANCE Energy from carbon can be exchanged from Geosphere to Ecosphere and Atmosphere yet can\'t be crushed Materials Balance is an Accounting of material entering and leaving a framework Provides experiences for controlling the carbon adjust so as not to over-burden the Atmosphere

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ENERGY & MATERIALS BALANCE E ENERGY

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Solar Radiation (T eff ~ 6000K for the most part UV, optical and IR) Earth\'s Radiation (T eff ~ 300K for the most part IR) Energy & Material Flows in the Economy Needs & Wants high-entropy Energy Services Low-Entropy Energy Sink for: Wastes & Emissions Products Materials Production Anthroposphere Ecosphere/Environment All materials that enter the monetary framework will in the end abandon it Large measures of low-entropy vitality are expected to drive the financial framework All monetary movement is basically dissipative of both vitality and materials

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HOURGLASS DIAGRAMS ENTROPY HUMAN ENVIRONMENT

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Overview Look Beyond techniques for waste treatment and transfer. Decrease squander all through the aggregate material cycle. 1. Roll out improvements inside each stage: plan and productivity. 2. Roll out improvements between the stages: circles 3. Roll out improvements past the stages: reexamining Opportunity: Help Colorado get to be distinctly world pioneer in keen plan, utilize and reuse of items and successful utilize and reuse of characteristic assets.

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Broad "stages" of mechanical exercises: Extraction of materials : mining, oil boring, agribusiness, ranger service, fishery… Processing of essential materials : bond and metal generation, oil refining, nourishment and wood handling… Primary creating : tube and wire, plastics, paper development… Manufacturing : engines, autos, plastic and paper mugs… Use of materials and items by open Recycling or transfer of utilized materials

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"Classes of ecological concerns" with respect to the potential effects of each class of exercises: ¨ Human wellbeing : cancer-causing, respiratory, eye/ear, tasteful… ¨ Ecosystems: biodiversity, creatures, angle, plants… ¨ Materials/vitality assets : metal and fossil fuel saves, woodlands… ¨ Solid deposits : city or modern strong squanders ¨ Liquid discharges : inorganic and natural contaminants of new and sea waters ¨ Gas outflows : inorganic and natural gasses and particulate matter transmitted to the air

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Biomimicry

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ENERGY ENVIRONMENT ECOSYSTEMS

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TRACKING POWER PLANT WASTE STREAMS Steam to: Bioplant Yeast to Pig Farmers Fermentation Sludge to Other Farmers Waste Heat: Re-cycled by means of Municipality of Kalundborg To Fish Farm which sends Sludge to Local Farmers Volatile Ashes: to Oil Refinery Steam: to Paper Factory Gypsum: to Plasterboard Factory Sludge: to Road Construction

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Tracking Refinery Waste Streams Gas: Plaster Board Plant Electricity Plant Sulfur: Sulfuric Acid Plant

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ENERGY ENVIRONMENT ECOSYSTEMS

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How much effect can carbon sequestration have on nursery gasses? It has been assessed that 20 percent or a greater amount of focused CO 2 discharge diminishments could be met by horticulture soil carbon sequestration.

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Farm

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Smart Farm Moderate Cost Potentially Large Supply Pros Makes Use Of Waste Low Net CO 2 Potential to Restore Degraded Land Facility Can Be Placed On Unused Farm Land

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Possible Problems Nonrenewable is not reasonably collected Potential for high ecological effect if not appropriately done The procedure can take quite a while Source: Miller, Living in the Environment, Thompson 2005

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Current Efforts John Deere takes an interest with NREL, DOE, and AFUP to develop a substantial obligation normal gas motor. The motors had expanded HP and MPG.  Rural China utilizes more than 500,000 biogas digesters. Blazing the methane from these digesters yield more vitality than specifically smoldering the material.  300 wells penetrated in U.S. landfills give a large number of people with vitality.  1/4 of the power and 1/10 of the warming for the BMW plant in Spartanburg, S.C. originates from landfill methane. Sources: On Road Development of John Deere 6081 Natural Gas Engine, NREL 2001; Miller, Living in the Environment, Thompson 2005

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1. Coal-terminated plant claimed by Goodland Energy Resources 2. Ethanol plant by E. Caruso 3. Biodiesel plant by ReNewable Energy Resources Cogen Electricity Co gen squander (steam) to make Ethanol squander slop for Biodiesel GOODLAND KANSAS EXAMPLE

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FUTURE US EMISSIONS WITH CAP &TRADE (CT) 2007 EIA Analysis of Sen. Bingaman\'s recommended alterations of EPAct 2005 Projected 44% expansion by 2030 Projected 21% expansion with CT, Energy Efficiency, Renewables & Nuclear Contrast with 6% beneath 1990 levels required by Kyoto

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EESI REPORT ON EMISSIONS TRADING Offset Projects for Renewable Energy & Production Methods (to incorporate Extraction, Processing) Efficiency Projects Through Rate base Changes ( to incorporate Generation, Use, Recycling & Waste Disposal) This could be a begin for an approach in view of Industrial Ecology.

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COLORADO CHALLENGE DEPLOY WASTE MANAGEMENT SKILLS & POLLUTION CONTROL EXPERTISE OF CDPHE CREATE BROADER FRAMEWORK OF INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY & MATERIALS BALANCE REDUCE RELIANCE ON FOSSIL FUEL BY RECYCLING, ENERGY EFFICIENCY, CONSERVATION & RENEWABLES CUT DOWN CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS

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