Diagnosing Learning Disabilities .

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Canadian Definition of Learning Disabilities (January 30, 2002). Learning Disabilities (LDs)
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Diagnosing Learning Disabilities Models to analyze Reading Disorder By: Mike Hogan, Chris Franz, & Ron Teffaine

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Canadian Definition of Learning Disabilities (January 30, 2002) Learning Disabilities (LDs)… influence… people… [with] at any rate normal capacities … As such, LDs are unmistakable from worldwide scholarly lack. LDs result from impedances in at least one procedures identified with seeing, considering, recalling or learning (e.g., dialect handling, phonological preparing, preparing speed, memory & consideration, official capacities, and so forth.). LDs meddle with (1) oral dialect , (2) perusing , (3) composed dialect , and (4) arithmetic . LDs are long lasting … [They] are recommended by unforeseen scholarly under-accomplishment . LDs are because of hereditary or potentially neurobiological variables or harm that changes cerebrum working …

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DSM-IV-TR LD Model (1994/2000) Learning Disorders are analyzed when: an individual\'s accomplishment in perusing, arithmetic, or composed expression is generously underneath that normal for age, tutoring, and level of insight (e.g., ≥ 1½ SDs beneath the mean). the learning issues altogether meddle with scholastic accomplishment or exercises of day by day living that require perusing, math, or composing aptitudes.

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DSM-IV-TR LD Model Associated Features & Disorders: Abnormalities in intellectual preparing (e.g., visual recognition, phonetic procedures, consideration, memory, and so forth.) Medical conditions: lead harming, fetal liquor disorder, delicate X disorder Demoralization, low self-regard, social aptitudes deficiencies, expanded drop-out rate (1.5 circumstances > normal) Higher rate of Disruptive Behavior & Mood Disorders

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DSM-IV-TR LD Model Differential Diagnosis LDs must be separated from: Normal varieties in accomplishment (< 1 SD beneath mean ) Lack of chance (e.g., poor participation) Poor instructing (e.g., self-teaching) Cultural components (e.g., EAL) Impaired vision or hearing Mental impediment ( with the exception of Mild cases )

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DSM-IV-TR Reading Disorder Diagnostic Criteria: A. Perusing accomplishment (through independently directed government sanctioned trial of perusing exactness, speed, or understanding), is generously beneath that normal given the individual\'s age, measured knowledge, and age-suitable training. B. The unsettling influence in Criterion A sig. meddles with accomplishment or exercises of every day living that require perusing. C. In the event that a tangible deficiency is available, the perusing troubles are in overabundance of those for the most part connected with it. Coding Note: If a general restorative (e.g., neurological) condition or tangible deficiency is available, code the state of Axis III.

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Using the DSM-IV-TR Model Look for unending underachievement in perusing: Interview educators and guardians at referral Observe understudy\'s perusing continuum, past running records, & comes about because of casual perusing inventories Check aggregate document for remarks & bring down imprints in ELA, and additionally fizzled advance in Reading Recovery or potentially Early Literacy Intervention programs Look for family history of perusing issues: Use foundation survey &/or talk with guardians

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Using the DSM-IV-TR Model Rule out contending clarifications: Poor or conflicting school participation Possible EAL status History of self-teaching Vision and hearing issues CDC reports of worldwide formative postponement &/or beneath normal scholarly level already discovered Little or no home support of proficiency

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Using The DSM-IV-TR Model Conduct individual government sanctioned testing: Aptitude tests (e.g., WISC-IV) Achievement tests (e.g., WIAT-II/GORT-IV or WIAT-III): Ensure you have trial of word perusing, unraveling or word assault, appreciation, and perusing familiarity A spelling test encourages blunder investigation for sub-writing Do capacity accomplishment disparity examination (anticipated accomplishment > straightforward contrast; sig. at p < .05; utilize a base rate of 10% or lower for extreme LD) Include other preparing tests that connect with perusing accomplishment (e.g., PAT, CTOPP, PAL-II – phonological mindfulness, orthographic mindfulness, quick naming, morphological mindfulness, TOC, SIT, NEPSY-II, and so on.)

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The Cross-Battery Model of LD ( Flanagan, Ortiz, Alfonso & Mascolo, 2006) Four Level Approach: Level I-A , regularizing shortage in scholastic working Level I-B , exclusionary elements for scholarly deficiency must be discounted Level II-A , regulating shortfalls in intellectual capacities/forms Level II-B , exclusionary variables are precluded for subjective shortfalls Level III , build up consistency between particular psychological shortages and particular ranges of scholarly underachievement and generally ordinary working in regions irrelevant to scholarly shortages Level IV , proof of useful restrictions in every day exercises identified with the scholastic deficiency

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CHC Consistency Approach to LD Diagnosis Gf: Inductive (I), and General Sequential Reasoning (RG) assume a direct part in perusing understanding Gc: Language Development (LD) and Lexical Knowledge (VL), and Listening Ability (LS) assume a vital part and turn out to be progressively essential as understudies age Gsm: Memory traverse is vital particularly inside the setting of working memory Ga: Phonetic Coding or phonological handling is critical amid grade school years Glr: Naming office or fast programmed naming is imperative amid basic years Gs: Processing pace is vital amid all school years especially amid rudimentary Moderate relationship with perusing Strong relationship with perusing

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Interpreting Results Dyslexia Subtypes

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The all inclusive " Dyslexia Signature " in view of fMRI research by Dr. Sally Shaywitz, et al. 1998 & 2002

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Dyslexic perusers utilize compensatory frameworks to peruse Sally Shaywitz, Overcoming Dyslexia , 2003

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Interpreting Results Phonological Dyslexia (~ 75%) ( Decoding < perusing appreciation) < AVERAGE Sight word acknowledgment to some degree superior to anything disentangling Reading familiarity is ordinarily moderate (this may hold on even after remediation) Primary shortfalls in phonological mindfulness (e.g., division, cancellation, mixing, thus on of syllables, phonemes, and so forth.) Often powerless in sound-related working memory and verifiable data Has inconvenience spelling phonetically normal words

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Interpreting Results Surface or Orthographic Dyslexia (~ 15%) Primary shortage in orthographic handling Decoding superior to anything sight word acknowledgment Over-dependence on sound/image affiliations Try to sound out each word (e.g., sign =/sig-en/) Very moderate and arduous perusing speed

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Interpreting Results Mixed dyslexia (~10 %) Involves perusing/spelling components of both phonological and orthographic dyslexia Severely impeded in perusing, and advance will be moderate Results in extremely strange mistake designs & poor syllabic representation: e.g., Advice read as "Exvices" e.g., Material read as "Mitear"

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Rare Reading Disorder Subtypes Hyperlexia - uncanny capacity to unravel words regardless of noteworthy psychological lack. Perception exceptionally poor. This might be found among those with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Profound Dyslexia - a perusing appreciation issue described by debilitations perusing words with dynamic implications; yet perusing more concrete, effortlessly envisioned words are in place. DeJerine Syndrome - dyslexia without dysgraphia. Understudy has little trouble composing, however can\'t read.

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Phoneme-Grapheme Matching Disorder Word Finding Disorder Two Reading Disorder Subtypes Proposed by Dr. Byron Rourke

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Phoneme-Grapheme Matching Disorder Key Deficit: Phoneme-grapheme coordinating issues are principal (regularly saw in challenges in making an interpretation of graphemes to phonemes) Grapheme-to-Phoneme Conversion : Convert a composed word ( e.g. , wharf) to its articulation or comparing sound grouping ( e.g. , W OW R F) amid oral perusing assignment Phoneme-Grapheme Conversion : Convert the sound succession/W OW R F/to a composed shape/wharf/amid spelling errands

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PGMD Prognosis Written spelling of sight words are normal Phonological mindfulness is typical Poor sound-related/verbal memory Word unraveling is poor, yet not as serious as the phonological center LD assemble Matching printed to talked words is poor Written spelling of words not known "by sight" is poor Writing letters and words to correspondence is poor Outcomes are vastly improved than the phonologically disabled LD bunch

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Word-Finding Disorder Word-finding and verbal-expressive expertise shortfalls, inside a setting of an extensive variety of in place aptitudes and capacities (e.g., normal phonological mindfulness and phoneme-grapheme coordinating abilities) NOTE: The main real deficiency is trouble in getting to their ordinary store of verbal affiliations.

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WFD Prognosis Reading and spelling are extremely poor amid the early school years. Close normal or normal execution in these ranges developing towards review 6-to-8. Number juggling and math thinking seen as qualities.

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The PAL-II Model of Diagnosing Reading Disabilities Step 1 Has the tyke had deficient chance to learn English? Does the tyke have MR, ASD, Language Disorder, or social enthusiastic issue Does the tyke have any known hereditary issue or mind damage or malady that influences cerebrum work? Step 2

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Step 2 Obtain a dependable measure of Verbal Comprehension/Crystallized IQ - WISC-IV, WJ III, KABC-II, DAS-II, and so forth. Evaluate the understudies: Sight-Word Knowledge (WIAT-II Word Reading; WJ III Letter-Word Identification) Reading Comprehension Spelling Word Attack (WIAT-II Pseudoword Decoding; WJ III Word Attack) Reading Fluency (GORT-4; WJ III Reading Fluency) VIQ > 91? (what\'s more, Any perusing or

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