- Diagram - Innovation Transformation to Without mercury Options.


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Elective advances exist (with the exception of lights?) Reliability is great ... The asbestos stomach is another option, and a sans asbestos stomach ...
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- Overview - Technology Conversion to Mercury-Free Alternatives Peter Maxson Concorde East/West Sprl - Brussels "Decreasing Mercury Use and Release in Products" Workshop sorted out and supported by: UNEP Chemicals Branch - Division of Trade, Industry, and Economics Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment of the Kingdom of Thailand United States Environmental Protection Agency Bangkok, 17-19 May 2007 – Siam City Hotel

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without mercury advancements Alternative innovations exist (aside from lights?) Reliability is great Prices are frequently aggressive Requirement of mercury gadget as an extra part is not basic For makers: more beneficial workplace, less unsafe waste transfer, better open picture, and so forth. At that point why not change over to sans mercury? P. Maxson - Concorde East/West Sprl - Brussels - concorde.ew@tele2allin.be - 17-19 May 2007

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Barriers to change Insufficient familiarity with commitment to mercury issues Lack of consciousness of choices Lack of neighborhood suppliers Unfamiliarity with the configuration or capacity It is most simple to proceed with the "old courses" For makers: need venture stores, process change, client instruction, perhaps new laborer abilities, and so on. P. Maxson - Concorde East/West Sprl - Brussels - concorde.ew@tele2allin.be - 17-19 May 2007

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Concerns about the biggest uses Small-scale gold mining A substantial issue, however our comprehension of the segment, and capacity to address it, is enhancing VCM (China & Russia) Large and developing client (China) Chlor-antacid Relatively little number of particularly contaminating plants Larger number of plants that have gotten little consideration Batteries containing mercury Mostly East Asia and South Asia sources and uses, yet diminishing Responding to global concerns, yet local use may hold on P. Maxson - Concorde East/West Sprl - Brussels - concorde.ew@tele2allin.be - 17-19 May 2007

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Major worldwide mercury utilizes – 2005 P. Maxson - Concorde East/West Sprl - Brussels - concorde.ew@tele2allin.be - 17-19 May 2007

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Two illustrations – significant utilizations – diffuse contamination Chlor-salt Dental mercury amalgam P. Maxson - Concorde East/West Sprl - Brussels - concorde.ew@tele2allin.be - 17-19 May 2007

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For every case Key issues for this diagram: primary issues choices expenses of change boundaries transformation progress P. Maxson - Concorde East/West Sprl - Brussels - concorde.ew@tele2allin.be - 17-19 May 2007

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Mercury-cell chlor-soluble base creation P. Maxson - Concorde East/West Sprl - Brussels - concorde.ew@tele2allin.be - 17-19 May 2007

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P. Maxson - Concorde East/West Sprl - Brussels - concorde.ew@tele2allin.be - 17-19 May 2007

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Chlor-antacid – primary issues Major mercury buyer Significant emanations and tremendous unexplained misfortunes of Mercury discharges to air for all intents and purposes difficult to quantify and satisfactorily control Mercury discharges to water and waste transfer additionally regularly intemperate Many laborers unconscious of dangers P. Maxson - Concorde East/West Sprl - Brussels - concorde.ew@tele2allin.be - 17-19 May 2007

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An open mercury cell – no safety measures P. Maxson - Concorde East/West Sprl - Brussels - concorde.ew@tele2allin.be - 17-19 May 2007

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Chlor-soluble base – options The film procedure is for the most part considered the best without mercury elective The asbestos stomach is another option, and a sans asbestos stomach has additionally been produced Alternatively, a few offices are attempting to show that can lessen outflows to a low and unimportant level P. Maxson - Concorde East/West Sprl - Brussels - concorde.ew@tele2allin.be - 17-19 May 2007

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Chlor-antacid – expense of change The expense of transformation is very variable, and normally incorporates site cleanup costs Actual costs commonly normal in the extent $US400-600 for each ton chlorine limit This cost must be adjusted against vast power investment funds (20-30%), lower waste transfer costs, human medical advantages, and so on. P. Maxson - Concorde East/West Sprl - Brussels - concorde.ew@tele2allin.be - 17-19 May 2007

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Chlor-antacid – hindrances to advance Facility records emanation reports proclaiming low discharges – difficult to control Return on speculation as often as possible > 5 years Facility debilitates to close if required to change over, suggesting loss of nearby occupations Operator does not wish to know degree of groundwater and soil tainting Facility may have solid arrangements to lower outflows P. Maxson - Concorde East/West Sprl - Brussels - concorde.ew@tele2allin.be - 17-19 May 2007

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Chlor-salt – genuine advancement Many nations (Portugal, Canada, Japan, Norway, Ireland, and so forth.) have as of now eliminated the mercury-cell prepare; no new mercury cells are being fabricated Facilities in the US, EU and India occasionally changing over to mercury free UNEP, WCC, Euro Chlor organization to give aptitude to diminish mercury uses and discharges Many offices have officially taken broad measures to decrease mercury emanations In the EU, the IPPC Directive has proposed full transformation to without mercury by 2007, OSPAR by 2010, while industry recommends 2020 P. Maxson - Concorde East/West Sprl - Brussels - concorde.ew@tele2allin.be - 17-19 May 2007

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Dental mercury amalgams P. Maxson - Concorde East/West Sprl - Brussels - concorde.ew@tele2allin.be - 17-19 May 2007

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Dental mercury amalgam – fundamental issues Low level of mindfulness among numerous dental staff individuals from perils Mercury stock in mouths is considerable Very diffuse wellspring of mercury discharges Impossible and unreasonable to control all purposes of mercury discharge Transformation of some dental mercury to methylmercury, which may enter the natural pecking order, particularly by means of fish utilization P. Maxson - Concorde East/West Sprl - Brussels - concorde.ew@tele2allin.be - 17-19 May 2007

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Dental mercury amalgam – options Alternatives utilized as a part of Sweden assessed at: composites (78%) glass ionomers (13%) amalgam (6%) compomers (3%) and clay (1%) Alternatively, far more noteworthy endeavors might be made to expel mercury from the dental waste stream and discard it as perilous waste P. Maxson - Concorde East/West Sprl - Brussels - concorde.ew@tele2allin.be - 17-19 May 2007

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Dental mercury amalgam – expense of choices Dentists ordinarily charge more for choices Actual expense of filling materials is commonly a minor rate of dental treatment Installation of separators in dental centers in the US evaluated at $US 50-100/month, and licenses (if appropriate support) >90% of mercury to be isolated from the waste stream Full expenses of mercury amalgams to human wellbeing and environment are high P. Maxson - Concorde East/West Sprl - Brussels - concorde.ew@tele2allin.be - 17-19 May 2007

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Dental mercury amalgam – obstructions to advance Dental affiliations may not urge dental practitioners to support choices Insurance organizations may not repay higher expense of choices Alternatives may require some extra preparing or strategies for legitimate use In numerous areas there is little government weight on dental practitioners to expel mercury from waste and arrange as risky waste P. Maxson - Concorde East/West Sprl - Brussels - concorde.ew@tele2allin.be - 17-19 May 2007

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Dental mercury amalgam – genuine advancement Denmark, Japan, Sweden, Finland, Norway are eliminating or emphatically debilitating mercury amalgams Some wellbeing projects are no more repaying mercury fillings The EU is empowering separators in facilities, and outflow controls on crematorium gasses Various states in the US are taking some comparative activities P. Maxson - Concorde East/West Sprl - Brussels - concorde.ew@tele2allin.be - 17-19 May 2007

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More data on sans mercury chlor-soluble base - 1 PA Maxson, Status report: Mercury cell chlor-antacid plants in Europe , Concorde East/West Sprl for the European Environmental Bureau, Brussels, October 2006. BREF Chlor-salt (2001), Reference Document on Best Available Techniques in the Chlor-Alkali Manufacturing Industry , European Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) Bureau, IPTS, Sevilla, December 2001. Accessible at http://eippcb.jrc.es/pages/Fmembers.htm Euro Chlor site http://www.eurochlor.org US EPA (1997b), Mercury Study Report to Congress . US EPA, Dec. 1997. Accessible at: http://www.epa.gov/mercury/report.htm. P. Maxson - Concorde East/West Sprl - Brussels - concorde.ew@tele2allin.be - 17-19 May 2007

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More data on without mercury chlor-salt - 2 Fugitive outflows (site). Point by point operational strategies for counteractive action of criminal air discharges have been created by US chlor-soluble base firms. See http://www.usepa.gov/Region5/air/mercury/hgcontrolguidancefinal.pdf. EU Press discharge (2005). European Commission Press discharge IP/05/303, "State help: Commission underwrites €18.5 million of help to diminish mercury emanations in Italy," Brussels, 16 March 2005 Maxson, P. (2004): Mercury streams in Europe and the world: The effect of decommissioned chlor-soluble base plants. European Commission, Brussels. Accessible at: europa.eu.int/comm/environment/chemicals/mercury/pdf/report.pdf. P. Maxson - Concorde East/West Sprl - Brussels - concorde.ew@tele2allin.be - 17-19 May 2007

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More data on decreasing dental mercury - 1 PA Maxson, Mercury in Dental Use: Environmental Implications for the European Union, Concorde East/West Sprl for the European Environmental Bureau, Brussels, May 2007. http://www.newmoa.org/aversion/topichub/toc.cfm?hub=103&subsec=7&nav=7 COWI (2002). ACAP and Danish EPA, Reduction of Atmospheric mercury discharges from Arctic nations – poll on emanations and related themes. November 2002. NJ MTF (2002): New Jersey Mercury Task Force Report. Volume III. Wellsprings of Mercury in New Jersey. January 2002. Accessible at site: http://www.state.nj.us/dep/d

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