Dialect and Power: Applying Critical Discourse Analysis CDA to Second Language Education SLE .


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Language and Power: Applying Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) to Second Language Education (SLE). Ali Hadidi York University Dec. 11, 2009. Outline. Objective, purpose, and questions Definitions Ideology Critical discourse analysis (CDA) Capitalist ideology Problem of ideology in SLE
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Dialect and Power: Applying Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) to Second Language Education (SLE) Ali Hadidi York University Dec. 11, 2009

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Outline Objective, reason, and inquiries Definitions Ideology Critical talk investigation (CDA) Capitalist philosophy Problem of belief system in SLE Alternative answers for the issue Tools of CDA Values un/found by CDA connected to SLE

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Objective To survey a few fundamental takes a shot at basic talk examination (CDA) To relate them to second dialect instructional method Purpose To propose rehearses that can teach ESL learners about digressive attributes of the writings they handle Guiding inquiries What are the hypothetical underpinnings of CDA? By what method can basic dialect mindfulness through CDA advise second dialect learning? In what manner can CDA be actualized in Second Language Education?

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General definitions (Richards and Schmidt, 2002) Discourse: " … dialect … delivered as a consequence of a demonstration of correspondence … refer[ring] to bigger units of dialect [than sentence], for example, sections, discussions, and meetings" (sections included). Talk investigation (DA): " the investigation of how sentences in talked and composed dialect shape bigger important units, for example, sections, discussions, interviews, and so forth." Critical talk examination (CDA): examination of "writings and other talk sorts … to recognize the belief system and qualities basic them. It tries to uncover the interests and power relations" in dialect utilize.

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Identity, SLE, and belief system Learners build new personalities as far as they can tell (Swain and Deters, 2007). Characters are educated by not just the syntactic, lexical, morphological, and phonological components of the L2 sentence structure, yet how they by and by "fitting" (Fairclough, 1995) this information at a discoursal level. Contained in the appointment of information are the understood or presupposed belief systems that learners are subliminally presented to. Belief system is etymologically (desultorily) interceded (Fowler et al, 1979, p.185, refered to in Young & Harrison, 2004, p.3)

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Ideology characterized Althusser (1971) , philosophy : "the arrangement of the thoughts and representations which overwhelm the brain of a man or a social gathering" (p.158). Eagleton (1991, p.29) six meanings of belief system: the procedure of creation of thoughts symbolizing a social gathering thoughts advanced and legitimized notwithstanding resistance thoughts advanced for the advantage of an overwhelming social gathering the thoughts which are contorted and legitimized by the predominant gathering the thoughts that are false and are advanced by the prevailing gathering, however emerge from the material structure of the general public 6

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Exposure to philosophy: A twofold edged sword, a problem It can acclimate learners with the digressive standards and elements of the prevailing social request can permit cooperation and upward portability in a specific order But, can surreptitiously open them to a procedure of ideological teaching uninvolved conformists versus ready nationals. L2 learning, without a basic mindfulness can advance and (accidentally) legitimize the directs and practices of the predominant request. Case: prevailing press messages as wellsprings of "true" instructional material to encourage etymological and sociolinguistic ability. making a cauldron of contending instructive strengths in the classroom.

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What to do with philosophy: ESL instructors choices Keep the ideologically determined messages out of the classroom (an evasion procedure) if at all conceivable Use them as though they were belief system allowed to attempt to just evoke dialect frames, Adopt a CDA approach toward such messages to bestow semantic information to explain the learners\' potential parts versus specialists of force in social settings, for example, the work environment, the media, et cetera.

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CDA characterized all the more unequivocally "... a diagnostic structure a hypothesis and technique for considering dialect in its connection to power and belief system. This system is seen … as an asset for individuals who are battling against control and mistreatment in its etymological structures." (Fairclough, 1995, p.1) "a type of \'social practice\' in which dialect utilize is viewed as [simultaneously] socially impacted and persuasive … reliable with a perspective of training which organizes the advancement of the learners\' abilities to analyze and judge the world deliberately, and if important to change it" Cots (2006, p.336). "instructive specialists progressively have swung to CDA to answer an arrangement of inquiries concerning the relationship amongst dialect and society "(Rogers at al., 2005, p.365).

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Eight standards of CDA, Pennycook (2001, p.80, refering to Wodak, 1996) CDA addresses social issues Power relations are desultory Discourse constitutes society and culture Does ideological work Is chronicled Need[s] a socio-subjective approach Is interpretative and logical Is a socially dedicated logical worldview

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Old industrialist philosophy about items and institutionalization institutionalized utilization as the " moral premise" for a solidarity to expend wares that would permit satisfying the American dream Promoted one dream New entrepreneur belief system about customization of items that are dovetailed to take into account singular wishes . advances a type of assorted qualities which is a relic of cutting edge markets. Industrialist belief system explained Gee, Hull, and Lankshear (1996, pp. 42-43)

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New industrialist philosophy and instruction/information Gee et al (1996, p.52) Workplace, which training is at last proposed for, is a framework in which knowledge is appropriated all through, decentralized and less demanding to oversee. The new work environment like a mobat, a MIT robot without a focal cerebrum, In mobat basic leadership is appropriated all through its mechanical body parts conveyed insight parts work by productively speaking with each other mobat more versatile, knowledge is decentralized , then when a section separates it can be all the more effortlessly supplanted. Also, in the new working environment, learning is compartmentalized and appropriated , In the new working environment conveying this information is more essential (p.58) than individual learning The vehicle to impart this learning is dialect

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Ideology and training The ideological powers that control instruction tend to keep basic thoughts out of instruction (Akbari, 2008). Case: advancement versus smart plan The previous is advantageously incorporated into school educational module. The last is specifically forgotten. Instructive materials can be utilized to advance the learners\' etymological collection (Pavlenko, 2007) And raise learners\' mindfulness about their organization in the social procedure they are an operator. (Swain & Deters, 2007).

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A situation: Is fusing politically charged material into ESL exercises instructively stable? Practice attentiveness? Learners have restricted subjective assets to process shape and significance at the same time. A dubious point can inspire understudies to talk: rich dialect utilize might be! In any case, maybe, not rich dialect utilization . Unless the action is painstakingly controlled inside the learner\'s zone of proximal improvement (ZPD, Vygotsky, 1978), which could bring about conceivable yield (Swain, 1985), The action can blowback and make a zone of angry engagement (ZCE) prompting generally immeasurable rages , or semi understandable and phonetically not well shaped expressions.

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Solution? Not an evasion system But rather deliberately and brilliantly appropriating semantically interceded philosophy in the classroom to serve both the etymological target of showing structure and the sociocultural goal of bringing issues to light. Content determination for CDA, "CDA should be clear about the writings which it chooses as objects of basic examination. Ideologically the best might be the content which does not obviously pronounce its ideological constitution, the flat content," Figueriredo (2000, p. 145, refering to Kress, 1993): Consistent with my thought of a content sufficiently rich for CDA, yet not all that provocative as to make a zone of fierce engagement in the classroom.

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Lexico-linguistic gadgets the media use to an ideological end as indicated by Fowler (1991)

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Disclaimer: Fowler (1991) The insignificant utilization of such gadgets is not really ideologically propelled and can be because of bureaucratic reasons, or the requirement for quickness. Accordingly a hypothesis of setting is important to translate the utilization of lexico-syntactic gadgets (van Dijk, 2001).

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Transitivity (agentless passivization, adjusted from Fowler, 1991, p.79 ) Plans to privatize hydro talked about Who examined it with whom? Outside prisoners announced unlawful? Who made the announcement? Application: Brevity? Bureaucratic correspondence? Ideologically roused? 18

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Nominalization He dismisses a call to postpone the enquiry (adjusted from Fowler, 1991, p.79) Who decided? Who conducts enquiry? Quarry stack shedding issue ( a feature adjusted from Fairclough, 1989, p. 50) Who is doing the (stone) shedding? Trucks? Who is responsible? 19

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Modality (Fowler, 1991, p.86) Truth, assurance, likelihood The corn meal will vote spending plan down Obligation Government must make a move to check psychological warfare Permission You can switch the arrangement Desirability He was right in embracing the intrusion 20

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Lexical/semantic maps , Vocabulary representation of world for a culture (Fowler, 1991, p.83 Example: chomped on fingernails … looked on restlessly … .daring to dream … blow it … sit easily … in days of yore. … dull days … remedy … heartbreaking blunder … compound … anguish. ( National Post, Dec 11, 2008 . p. A.1 ) 21

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A hypothesis of setting (van Dijk, 2006) … settings are not " objective " or " determin

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