Dialect Change .

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Dialect Change Pidgins and Creoles Historical Linguistics Language Change

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Reminder: Exam #1 is 9/25! Survey sheet is online PowerPoint slides – print them out or get duplicates in 509 Williams for 10 pennies/page www.uvm.edu/~jadickin/human studies 28.html Use the connection to the course reading site – there are cheat sheets and different apparatuses to help concentrate reading material

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REVIEW SESSION MONDAY 9/24 7 PM in Williams room 402 Also, I will have additional available time Monday 9/24 from 12 to 2

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Review: sorts of dialect change See the "Dialect Change" gift External change Internal change Structural getting Lexical acquiring Functional move Semantic move

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Semantic reversal A type of semantic move where a word goes up against the inverse importance. Semantic reversal is extremely basic in slang and other vocabulary frameworks intended to prohibit untouchables (e.g. "cheats\' languages") Examples: Def (passing) = great Gnarly = great Sick = great

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Lexical Borrowing – Lee article The web based perusing by Margaret Lee spotlights on lexical getting of African American words or expressions into a standard daily paper Lee discovered words being used that had been acquired into standard American English amid various times of American history

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"Extension" of eminence While Lee discovered numerous cases of borrowings from African American English into standard daily paper composing, she additionally demonstrated that the distinction related with African American English is moved in territories, for example, excitement, games, and superstar news

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Social Factors in Vocabulary Change At any point in a dialect change, a few individuals from the gathering will talk the "old" way and some will talk the new way. This can make or strengthen social limits. What are some social limits that dialect change makes or strengthens?

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Our "new word" What will give "legs"? What territories of our vocabulary appear to be the most "beneficial" for new words? Attempt to think of another word – semantic move, coinage, cutting and so forth

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Endangered Languages

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Language Shift/Death One consequence of dialect contact can be dialect move, where speakers start to talk another dialect and quit talking their previous dialect. After some time, this can bring about dialect passing. This marvel is going on everywhere throughout the world, and has as of now happened to numerous Native American dialects in the U.S.

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Three phases of dialect demise In dialect move , individuals start to utilize one dialect more than another, and may urge their kids to pick the new dialect. In the end, the group is utilizing one dialect, not the other. A dialect is incurable if no kids are taking in the dialect as their first dialect A dialect is dead if there are no living speakers of the dialect.

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Language Revitalization Language rejuvenation is an endeavor to "revive" a dialect that is hopeless through expanding the quantity of individuals who are learning and talking the dialect Language renewal programs concentrate on inspiring individuals to learn and talk a withering dialect and show it to their youngsters More on this in Week 14!

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Language philosophy Revitalization programs regularly should conflict with social thoughts regarding or partialities against the withering dialect. For instance, the dialect may not be viewed as "present day," or might be related with absence of training, negative ethnic generalizations, or be viewed as "out-dated" Example from our readings: Garifuna

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Garifuna is talked in Belize and some other Central American countires Total number of current speakers is around 100,000 Garifuna is an Arawakan dialect talked in Central America

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Garifuna: "disgrace" and move Code decision in a blended populace in Belize – Garifuna versus Belizian Creole Speak Garifuna and relate to your ethnic gathering, or English Creole and recognize as Belizean? Kids are embarrassed to speak Garifuna in light of the fact that it marks them as poor and "in reverse" Parents feel that speaking Garifuna is an indication of pride in your identity

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Exam address on Garifuna The exposition address on the survey sheet requests that you have the capacity to depict the dialect circumstance in Belize – what is the official dialect? What different dialects are talked? What is the way of dialect move among Garifuna kids, and what reasons does the creator give for the move?

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Writing frameworks

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Types of Writing Systems Ottenheimer, Chapter 7 Logographic composition frameworks – composed images speak to whole words (Chinese) Syllabic written work frameworks – images speak to syllables (Inuit) Alphabetic composition frameworks – images speak to individual sounds (Roman)

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Example of Inuktitut (Inuit) Syllabic composition frameworks were acquainted with numerous Native American gatherings by teachers and brokers in the 1800\'s Eastern Inuktitut speakers received syllabics, while different gatherings utilize Roman or Cyrillic letter sets.

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Inuktitut Syllabary

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Writing and Technology In the 1960\'s, IBM made a that could sort Inuktitut syllabics Not every one of the characters would fit, so one arrangement of syllabics was expelled (AI-PAI-TAI) With new PC text styles, these characters have been reestablished to the syllabary

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Writing and Standardization Writing frameworks are fundamental to building up a composed standard for a dialect (duh) Writing frameworks might be decided for comfort, for phonetic reasons, or for ideological reasons Even after the composition framework has been picked, there might be a considerable measure of transaction about which dialect(s) the composed standard will be nearest to However, having a composed dialect can enhance the societal position of a dialect and make it simpler to instruct, helping renewal endeavors.

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Pidgins and Creoles The creation of new dialects in contact circumstances

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Pidgins A pidgin is an exchange "dialect" – really it is linguistically less complex in shape than a genuine dialect and does not have full elaboration of capacity . After some time, as individuals extend the circumstances in which they utilize a pidgin, it can be come completely expounded and afterward turn into a creole, through the procedure of creolization.

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Creoles When a profoundly explained pidgin (one with that can serve all the correspondence needs of its speakers) achieves the point where kids are learning it as their first dialect, it has turned into a creole , a completely useful and expounded dialect that rose up out of the communication of at least two dialects. This procedure is called creolization .

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Power and Creoles Creolization happens in circumstances where one dialect is related with more power than another. A few people restrain "creoles" to dialects that emerge in instances of constrained development or colonization. The dialect on which a creole is based is known as the " grid dialect ."

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Example Hatian Kreyol - a French creole talked in Haiti French is the framework dialect, yet West African dialects contributed phonology, vocabulary and a few components of the punctuation.

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Examples from "One Year from now\'s Words"

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Creole Continuum The creole continuum stretches out from "profound" creole, generally talked by individuals at the base of a stratified framework, to a standard type of the grid dialect . Barbadian - B. Creole - Barbadian Creole (medium) English (profound)

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Tok Pisin Tok Pisin is a creole dialect talked in Papua New Guinea that is quickly picking up speakers. One of 2 authority dialects of Papua New Guinea Tok Pisin has been institutionalized and is utilized as a part of composed dialect, broadcasting, and oral correspondence. You can even pursuit the web in Tok Pisin.

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Krio is an English creole dialect that is one of the official dialects of Sierra Leone. 4,000,000 speakers, around 10% are local speakers [around 23 dialects are talked in Sierra Leone]

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Jamaican Creole Grammatically particular from English. A few illustrations: di lady dem = the ladies Mi ron = I run (routinely); I ran Mi a ron = I am running Mi ena (en+a) ron = I was running Mi en ron = I have run; I had run

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Variations in New Englishes She is knowing her science extremely well (E. Africa) I graduate there in 1990. (PNG) Before I generally go to that market (Malaysia) - focus on it (India) - You didn\'t travel via auto? (India) - Yes, I didn\'t. - Don\'t kacho me when I need to work! (Malaysia) When we return home, we ask daddy to changkol the garden (Singapore)

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Historical Linguistics Historical Linguistics is the investigation of how dialects change and create after some time, and how dialects are identified with each other.

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"Sluggishness" Principle This rule contends that adjustments in elocution happen in light of the fact that erasing or changing sounds in a word brings about an articulation that requires less exertion. I AM gets to be I\'m mylne (Old English) gets to be factory

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The Great Vowel Shift A move in the whole vowel arrangement of English occurring in the 15 th and 16 th hundreds of years. Each progressions was a piece of a "domino impact" Seven Middle English vowels were adjusted over this period: Middle English Modern English Meaning [hu:s] [haws] house [wi:f] [wayf] spouse [go:s] [gu:s] goose [na:m ə] [ne:m] name [h ɔ :m] [ho:m] home [s ɛ :] [si:] ocean

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Northern Cities Vo

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