Various Processor Systems 8.1 Multiprocessors 8.2 Multicomputers 8.3 Distributed frameworks Chapter 8Slide 2
Multiprocessor Systems Continuous requirement for quicker PCs shared memory model message passing multiprocessor wide territory disseminated frameworkSlide 3
Multiprocessors Definition: A PC framework in which two or more CPUs share full access to a typical RAMSlide 4
Multiprocessor Hardware (1) Bus-based multiprocessorsSlide 5
Multiprocessor Hardware (2) UMA Multiprocessor utilizing a crossbar switchSlide 6
Multiprocessor Hardware (3) UMA multiprocessors utilizing multistage exchanging systems can be worked from 2x2 switches (a) 2x2 switch (b) Message groupSlide 7
Multiprocessor Hardware (4) Omega Switching NetworkSlide 8
Multiprocessor Hardware (5) NUMA Multiprocessor Characteristics Single location space noticeable to all CPUs Access to remote memory by means of summons LOAD STORE Access to remote memory slower than to neighborhoodSlide 9
Multiprocessor Hardware (6) (a) 256-hub registry based multiprocessor (b) Fields of 32-bit memory address (c) Directory at hub 36Slide 10
Multiprocessor OS Types (1) Each CPU has its own working framework BusSlide 11
Multiprocessor OS Types (2) Master-Slave multiprocessors BusSlide 12
Multiprocessor OS Types (3) Symmetric Multiprocessors SMP multiprocessor model BusSlide 13
Multiprocessor Synchronization (1) TSL guideline can fall flat if transport as of now boltedSlide 14
Multiprocessor Synchronization (2) Multiple locks used to evade reserve whippingSlide 15
Multiprocessor Synchronization (3) Spinning versus Switching at times CPU must hold up holds up to gain prepared rundown In different cases a decision exists turning squanders CPU cycles exchanging goes through CPU cycles additionally conceivable to settle on partitioned choice every time bolted mutex experiencedSlide 16
Multiprocessor Scheduling (1) Timesharing note utilization of single information structure for bookingSlide 17
Multiprocessor Scheduling (2) Space sharing numerous strings at same time over numerous CPUsSlide 18
Multiprocessor Scheduling (3) Problem with correspondence between two strings both have a place with procedure A both coming up short on stageSlide 19
Multiprocessor Scheduling (4) Solution: Gang Scheduling Groups of related strings planned as a unit (a posse) All individuals from group run all the while on various timeshared CPUs All group individuals begin and end time cuts togetherSlide 20
Multiprocessor Scheduling (5) Gang SchedulingSlide 21
Multicomputers Definition: Tightly-coupled CPUs that don\'t share memory Also known as bunch PCs bunches of workstations (COWs)Slide 22
Interconnection topologies (a) solitary switch (b) ring (c) lattice (d) twofold torus (e) 3D square (f) hypercube Multicomputer Hardware (1)Slide 23
Multicomputer Hardware (2) Switching plan store-and-forward parcel exchangingSlide 24
Multicomputer Hardware (3) Network interface loads up in a multicomputerSlide 25
Low-Level Communication Software (1) If a few procedures running on hub need system access to send bundles … Map interface load up to all procedure that need it If piece needs access to organize … Use two system loads up one to client space, one to portionSlide 26
Low-Level Communication Software (2) Node to Network Interface Communication Use send & get rings facilitates principle CPU with on-load up CPUSlide 27
User Level Communication Software (a) Blocking send call Minimum administrations gave send and get charges These are blocking (synchronous) calls (b) Nonblocking send callSlide 28
Remote Procedure Call (1) Steps in making a remote technique call the stubs are shaded darkSlide 29
Remote Procedure Call (2) Implementation Issues Cannot pass pointers call by reference gets to be duplicate reestablish (however may come up short) Weakly wrote dialects customer stub can\'t decide size Not generally conceivable to decide parameter sorts Cannot utilize worldwide variables may get moved to remote machineSlide 30
Distributed Shared Memory (1) Note layers where it can be actualized equipment working framework client level programmingSlide 31
Distributed Shared Memory (2) Replication (a) Pages circulated on 4 machines (b) CPU 0 peruses page 10 (c) CPU 1 peruses page 10Slide 32
Distributed Shared Memory (3) False Sharing Must likewise accomplish consecutive consistencySlide 33
Multicomputer Scheduling Load Balancing (1) Graph-theoretic deterministic calculation ProcessSlide 34
Load Balancing (2) Sender-started dispersed heuristic calculation over-burden senderSlide 35
Load Balancing (3) Receiver-started appropriated heuristic calculation under stacked recipientSlide 36
Distributed Systems (1) Comparison of three sorts of numerous CPU frameworksSlide 37
Distributed Systems (2) Achieving consistency with middlewareSlide 38
Network Hardware (1) Computer Ethernet (a) great Ethernet (b) exchanged Ethernet (a) (b)Slide 39
Network Hardware (2) The InternetSlide 40
Network Services and Protocols (1) Network ServicesSlide 41
Network Services and Protocols (2) Internet Protocol Transmission Control Protocol Interaction of conventionsSlide 42
Document-Based Middleware (1) The Web a major coordinated diagram of archivesSlide 43
Document-Based Middleware (2) How the program gets a page Asks DNS for IP address DNS answers with IP address Browser makes association Sends ask for indicated page Server sends record TCP association discharged Browser shows content Browser brings, shows picturesSlide 44
File System-Based Middleware (1) Transfer Models (a) transfer/download model (b) remote access model (b) (a)Slide 45
File System-Based Middleware (2) Naming Transparency (b) Clients have same perspective of document framework (c) Alternatively, customers with various perspectiveSlide 46
File System-Based Middleware (3) Semantics of File sharing (a) solitary processor gives successive consistency (b) conveyed framework may return old qualitySlide 47
File System-Based Middleware (4) AFS – Andrew File System workstations gathered into cells note position of venus and bad habit Client\'s perspectiveSlide 48
Shared Object-Based Middleware (1) Main components of CORBA based framework Common Object Request Broker ArchitectureSlide 49
Shared Object-Based Middleware (2) Scaling to huge frameworks recreated objects adaptability Globe intended to scale to a billion clients a trillion items around the globeSlide 50
Shared Object-Based Middleware (3) Globe organized articleSlide 51
Shared Object-Based Middleware (4) A dispersed shared article in Globe can have its state replicated on numerous PCs without a moment\'s delaySlide 52
Shared Object-Based Middleware (5) Internal structure of a Globe objectSlide 53
Coordination-Based Middleware (1) Linda free procedures impart by means of dynamic tuple space Tuple like a structure in C, record in Pascal Operations: out, in, read, evalSlide 54
Coordination-Based Middleware (2) Publish-Subscribe engineeringSlide 55
Coordination-Based Middleware (3) Jini - in view of Linda model gadgets connected to a system offer, use administrations Jini Methods read compose take advise
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