Different Processor Frameworks.

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Multicomputer Hardware (3) Network interface sheets in a multicomputer. Low-Level ... consecutive consistency (b) circulated framework may return old worth ...
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Various Processor Systems 8.1 Multiprocessors 8.2 Multicomputers 8.3 Distributed frameworks Chapter 8

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Multiprocessor Systems Continuous requirement for quicker PCs shared memory model message passing multiprocessor wide territory disseminated framework

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Multiprocessors Definition: A PC framework in which two or more CPUs share full access to a typical RAM

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Multiprocessor Hardware (1) Bus-based multiprocessors

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Multiprocessor Hardware (2) UMA Multiprocessor utilizing a crossbar switch

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Multiprocessor Hardware (3) UMA multiprocessors utilizing multistage exchanging systems can be worked from 2x2 switches (a) 2x2 switch (b) Message group

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Multiprocessor Hardware (4) Omega Switching Network

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Multiprocessor Hardware (5) NUMA Multiprocessor Characteristics Single location space noticeable to all CPUs Access to remote memory by means of summons LOAD STORE Access to remote memory slower than to neighborhood

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Multiprocessor Hardware (6) (a) 256-hub registry based multiprocessor (b) Fields of 32-bit memory address (c) Directory at hub 36

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Multiprocessor OS Types (1) Each CPU has its own working framework Bus

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Multiprocessor OS Types (2) Master-Slave multiprocessors Bus

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Multiprocessor OS Types (3) Symmetric Multiprocessors SMP multiprocessor model Bus

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Multiprocessor Synchronization (1) TSL guideline can fall flat if transport as of now bolted

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Multiprocessor Synchronization (2) Multiple locks used to evade reserve whipping

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Multiprocessor Synchronization (3) Spinning versus Switching at times CPU must hold up holds up to gain prepared rundown In different cases a decision exists turning squanders CPU cycles exchanging goes through CPU cycles additionally conceivable to settle on partitioned choice every time bolted mutex experienced

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Multiprocessor Scheduling (1) Timesharing note utilization of single information structure for booking

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Multiprocessor Scheduling (2) Space sharing numerous strings at same time over numerous CPUs

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Multiprocessor Scheduling (3) Problem with correspondence between two strings both have a place with procedure A both coming up short on stage

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Multiprocessor Scheduling (4) Solution: Gang Scheduling Groups of related strings planned as a unit (a posse) All individuals from group run all the while on various timeshared CPUs All group individuals begin and end time cuts together

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Multiprocessor Scheduling (5) Gang Scheduling

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Multicomputers Definition: Tightly-coupled CPUs that don\'t share memory Also known as bunch PCs bunches of workstations (COWs)

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Interconnection topologies (a) solitary switch (b) ring (c) lattice (d) twofold torus (e) 3D square (f) hypercube Multicomputer Hardware (1)

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Multicomputer Hardware (2) Switching plan store-and-forward parcel exchanging

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Multicomputer Hardware (3) Network interface loads up in a multicomputer

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Low-Level Communication Software (1) If a few procedures running on hub need system access to send bundles … Map interface load up to all procedure that need it If piece needs access to organize … Use two system loads up one to client space, one to portion

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Low-Level Communication Software (2) Node to Network Interface Communication Use send & get rings facilitates principle CPU with on-load up CPU

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User Level Communication Software (a) Blocking send call Minimum administrations gave send and get charges These are blocking (synchronous) calls (b) Nonblocking send call

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Remote Procedure Call (1) Steps in making a remote technique call the stubs are shaded dark

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Remote Procedure Call (2) Implementation Issues Cannot pass pointers call by reference gets to be duplicate reestablish (however may come up short) Weakly wrote dialects customer stub can\'t decide size Not generally conceivable to decide parameter sorts Cannot utilize worldwide variables may get moved to remote machine

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Distributed Shared Memory (1) Note layers where it can be actualized equipment working framework client level programming

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Distributed Shared Memory (2) Replication (a) Pages circulated on 4 machines (b) CPU 0 peruses page 10 (c) CPU 1 peruses page 10

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Distributed Shared Memory (3) False Sharing Must likewise accomplish consecutive consistency

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Multicomputer Scheduling Load Balancing (1) Graph-theoretic deterministic calculation Process

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Load Balancing (2) Sender-started dispersed heuristic calculation over-burden sender

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Load Balancing (3) Receiver-started appropriated heuristic calculation under stacked recipient

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Distributed Systems (1) Comparison of three sorts of numerous CPU frameworks

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Distributed Systems (2) Achieving consistency with middleware

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Network Hardware (1) Computer Ethernet (a) great Ethernet (b) exchanged Ethernet (a) (b)

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Network Hardware (2) The Internet

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Network Services and Protocols (1) Network Services

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Network Services and Protocols (2) Internet Protocol Transmission Control Protocol Interaction of conventions

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Document-Based Middleware (1) The Web a major coordinated diagram of archives

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Document-Based Middleware (2) How the program gets a page Asks DNS for IP address DNS answers with IP address Browser makes association Sends ask for indicated page Server sends record TCP association discharged Browser shows content Browser brings, shows pictures

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File System-Based Middleware (1) Transfer Models (a) transfer/download model (b) remote access model (b) (a)

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File System-Based Middleware (2) Naming Transparency (b) Clients have same perspective of document framework (c) Alternatively, customers with various perspective

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File System-Based Middleware (3) Semantics of File sharing (a) solitary processor gives successive consistency (b) conveyed framework may return old quality

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File System-Based Middleware (4) AFS – Andrew File System workstations gathered into cells note position of venus and bad habit Client\'s perspective

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Shared Object-Based Middleware (1) Main components of CORBA based framework Common Object Request Broker Architecture

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Shared Object-Based Middleware (2) Scaling to huge frameworks recreated objects adaptability Globe intended to scale to a billion clients a trillion items around the globe

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Shared Object-Based Middleware (3) Globe organized article

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Shared Object-Based Middleware (4) A dispersed shared article in Globe can have its state replicated on numerous PCs without a moment\'s delay

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Shared Object-Based Middleware (5) Internal structure of a Globe object

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Coordination-Based Middleware (1) Linda free procedures impart by means of dynamic tuple space Tuple like a structure in C, record in Pascal Operations: out, in, read, eval

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Coordination-Based Middleware (2) Publish-Subscribe engineering

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Coordination-Based Middleware (3) Jini - in view of Linda model gadgets connected to a system offer, use administrations Jini Methods read compose take advise

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