Diffuse Galactic X-beam Emission the Galactic Center .


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Accumulating Black-gaps in the Nearby Galaxy M101. OPTICAL. X-RAY. . . . X-beam Emission from the Milky WayType of Emitter Number in Summed Lx Galaxy 10 38 erg s-1HMXRB 30 ~3LMXRB 100 ~30 SNR ~500
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Slide 1

Diffuse Galactic X-beam Emission & the Galactic Center Bob Warwick University of Leicester

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Accreting Black-openings in the Nearby Galaxy M101 OPTICAL X-RAY

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A Normal Face-on Galaxy – M101 Why are X-beams Important? Distinguished periods of the Galactic ISM: Very hot: log T > 7.5 i.e. KT > 3 keV. Hot: 6 < log T < 7.5, i.e. 0.1 < kT < 3 keV Coronal: 5 < log T < 6 Warm: log T ~ 4, e.g. WIM, WNM. Icy: log T 1 - 3 e.g. Atomic mists 0.3-1.0 keV XMM-Newton source-evacuated EPIC picture with GALEX UV forms superimposed (Warwick et al. 2005 in prep.)

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X-beam Emission from the Milky Way Type of Emitter Number in Summed Lx Galaxy 10 38 erg s - 1 HMXRB 30 ~3 LMXRB 100 ~30 SNR ~500 <1 Low Lx Be Binaries ~10 4 <1 CVs ~10 5 <1 RSCVn ~10 6 <1 Late Type Stars 10 <1 Active Nucleus 1 <0.001 Diffuse Disk/GC 1 ~3 Diffuse Bulge 1 ~20 Diffuse Halo/Corona 1 ~10 Total ~60

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408 MHz Haslam et al. 1982 Snowden et al. 1997

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Chandra Mosaic of the Galactic Center Region Wang, Gotthelf & Lang (2002)

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Topics The Local Bubble, the Galactic Halo & Beyond Loop 1 & the Galactic Bulge Emission The Origin of the Hard Galactic Ridge Hot Plasma in the Galactic Center Region Fluorescent X-beams from GC Molecular Clouds

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Topics The Local Bubble, the Galactic Halo & Beyond Loop 1 & the Galactic Bulge Emission The Origin of the Hard Galactic Ridge Hot Plasma in the Galactic Center Region Fluorescent X-beams from GC Molecular Clouds

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T = 10 6.5 K T = 10 6.1 K Distribution of ~ 10 6 K Plasma in the Local Galaxy Galactic Anti-Center Galactic Center GALACTIC PLANE Snowden (2002)

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Shadowing of the ¼ keV SXRB in Draco RAS ¼ keV IRAS 100 micron Burrows & Mendenhall 1991; Snowden et al. 1991

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Distribution of ~ 10 6 K Plasma in the Local Galaxy T = 10 6.5 K Draco Nebula T = 10 6.1 K 270 o 90 o Cygnus Super Bubble Snowden (2002)

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Simulated Spectrum of the Galactic Foreground at High Latitude Local Hot Bubble Active Galaxies Galactic Halo IGM of Local Group ? Impulse ? Tooth et al, 2005

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WHIM Absorption Along the Line of Sight to Markarian 421 Nicastro et al. (2005)

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Hot gas in a Galaxy Group Diffuse emanation from a WHIM fiber Void in the WHIM structure Fang et al, 2005

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XMM-Newton EPIC Instrument Large Effective Area: ~ 2000 cm 2 @ 1 keV Good Imaging Capability: PSF(FWHM) 6 arcsec Wide Field of View: ~30 arcmin diameter Broad Bandpass: 0.3-12 keV Good Spectral Resolution: 120 eV @ 6 keV

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XMM MIRRORS

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XMM EPIC CCD CAMERAS MOS CCDs pn CCD

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Measuring the Spectrum of the Diffuse XRB with the EPIC CCDs pn Instrumental fluorescent lines MOS Particle continuum Energy (keV)

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WHIM FILAMENT Simulated Spectra

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Topics The Local Bubble, the Galactic Halo & Beyond Loop 1 & the Galactic Bulge Emission The Origin of the Hard Galactic Ridge Hot Plasma in the Galactic Center Region Fluorescent X-beams from GC Molecular Clouds

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Distribution of ~10 6 K Plasma in the Local ISM T = 10 6.6 K T = 10 6.1 K Galactic Center Galactic Anti-Center Snowden (2002)

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ROSAT ALL-SKY SURVEY - ¾ keV IMAGE

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Soft X-beam Spectra of the North Polar Spur Willingale et al. (2003)

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Willingale et al. (2003)

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ROSAT ALL-SKY SURVEY - ¾ keV IMAGE Ophiuchus Dark Cloud

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X-beam Shadowing in the Ophiuchus Molecular Cloud EPIC PN SPECTRUM: ON/OFF CLOUD 0.2 Energy (keV) 1 2 Image: X-beam 0.5-0.9 keV Contours: IRAS 100 micron Mendes et al. (2005) revealed in Breitschwerdt et al. (2005)

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ROSAT ALL-SKY SURVEY - ¾ keV IMAGE

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EPIC MOS SPECTRA FOR THE GALACTIC BULGE REGION 0.5,- 2.6 0.0,0.0 1.1,- 3.8 0.4,- 5.4 0.5,- 8.0 0.0,- 11.9 345,+12 345,+24

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Topics The Local Bubble, the Galactic Halo & Beyond Loop 1 & the Galactic Bulge Emission The Origin of the Hard Galactic Ridge Hot Plasma in the Galactic Center Region Fluorescent X-beams from GC Molecular Clouds

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6. 7 keV line Excellent Tracer Galactic Center The Galactic X-beam Ridge Identified as a critical Galactic component by HEAO1 (Worrall et al. 1982) Narrow edge clear in EXOSAT Galactic Plane Scan (Warwick et al. 1985) Extensively considered in Ginga & ASCA Surveys (Yamauchi & Koyama 1993; Sugizaki et al. 2001)

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Spectrum of the Galactic Ridge Emission lines from profoundly ionized Si, S, and Fe  multi-temperature plasma models ORIGIN OF THE HARD COMPONENT? Iridescence of 1.4 x 10^38 erg/s Energy Density ~10 eV/cm^3 Too hot to begin in SN action Unbound to Galactic Disk Possible ways to deal with different parts of the issue: Magnetic reconnection & imprisonment Quasi-warm plasma LECRe – non-warm commitment LECR particles & charge trade See Tanaka (2002) ASCA GIS 6.7 keV press line kT ~ 10 keV Cosmic X-beam Background Cool segment kT ~0.8 keV Kaneda et al. (1997)

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Point source commitment Ebisawa et al (2005) Is the Hard X-beam Galactic Ridge because of Truly diffuse emanation? The superposition of point sources?

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Ebisawa et al. (2003,2005 ) Is the Hard X-beam Galactic Ridge because of Truly diffuse outflow? The superposition of point sources?

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XGPS-I Survey after Point Source Removal 0.4-1.4 keV 2-6 keV

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G20.7-0.1 G20.0-0.2 G19.6-0.2 G21.8-0.2=Kes 69 Radio 20 cm XGPS-I Survey after Point Source Removal 2-6 keV

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Variation of the 2-6 keV surface splendor of the Galactic X-beam Ridge with (l,b) 25.0 o 5.0 o Galactic Longitude - 0.5 o 0.0 o +0.5 o Galactic Latitude

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The 6.7 keV press line – the key symptomatic? ASCA GIS: 6.61+/ - 0.02 keV (Kaneda et al. 1997)  nei plasma or a mix of warm outflow with 6.4 keV press fluorescence from LECRe excitation of frosty gas ASCA SIS: Blend of 6.70 keV (He-like) & 6.96 keV (H-like) lines (Tanaka 2002)  ~ collisional harmony warm plasma at ~ 8 keV  fundamentally the same as range to that observed in Galactic Center! Chandra: 6.52 +0.08/ - 0.14 keV (Ebisawa et al. 2005)  predictable with ASCA GIS result!

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Equivalent width of 6.4 keV Fe fluorescence line < 50 eV 6.7 keV press line The X-beam Spectrum of the Galactic X-beam Ridge measured by XMM-Newton Raw Background-subtracted Preliminary Only

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Topics The Local Bubble, the Galactic Halo & Beyond Loop 1 & the Galactic Bulge Emission The Origin of the Hard Galactic Ridge Hot Plasma in the Galactic Center Region Fluorescent X-beams from GC Molecular Clouds

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XMM-NEWTON GALACTIC Center SURVEYS WIDE-FIELD SURVEY Anne Decourchelle Saclay Bob Warwick Leicester Masaaki Sakano Leicester Peter Predehl MPE Delphine Porquet MPE SGR A* MONITORING Andrea Goldwurm Saclay et al ~ 250 ks ~ 400 ks

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0.0 o - 0.2 o 0.2 o 0.0 o Sgr A - Radio Arc Region 0.5-1.4 keV X-beam Sgr A* 1E 1743.1-2843 Galactic Latitude - 0.2 o Galactic Longitude

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0.0 o - 0.2 o 0.2 o 0.0 o Sgr A - Radio Arc Region 2-4.5 keV X-beam Arches Cluster Sgr A* 1E 1743.1-2843 Galactic Latitude Sgr An East SNR - 0.2 o Galactic Longitude

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0.0 o - 0.2 o 0.2 o 0.0 o Sgr A - Radio Arc Region 4.5-6 keV X-beam Arches Cluster Sgr An East SNR Sgr A* 1E 1743.1-2843 Galactic Latitude NT X-beam Threads - 0.2 o Galactic Longitude

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0.0 o - 0.2 o 0.2 o 0.0 o Sgr A - Radio Arc Region 6-9 keV X-beam Sgr A* Transient Galactic Latitude NT X-beam Threads G0.13-0.13 Transient - 0.2 o Galactic Longitude

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2-6 keV band 2.4 keV S line 6.7 keV Fe line 6.4 keV Fe line

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Spectral Extraction Region 4.5-6 keV Continuum Celestial Coordinates

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X-beam Spectrum from the Annular Region around Sgr A Si XIII S XV 7-10 keV Thermal as well as Non-Thermal Ar XVII Ca XIX Fe 1-3 keV Thermal Al & Si Fluorescence Lines

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Intrinsic width of Fe 6.7 keV line 27 +/ - 13 eV Fe-line Spectrum from the Annular Region around Sgr A 6.4 keV 6.70 keV 6.96 keV Fe XXV Fe Neutral Fe XXVI

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S XV Fe XXV Fe K  8 keV warm 1 keV warm Non-warm bremmstrahlung in addition to 6.4 keV press fluorescence from LECRe + atomic gas

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a x b x c x 4.5-6 keV Continuum 6.4 keV Iron Line 2.4 keV Sulfur Line 6.7 keV Iron Line

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a = 1.8 (Z~3 ; LECRe segment) b = 0.75 (Z ~1 ; 1 keV plasma) c = 3.7 (Z=1 ; 8 keV plasma)

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Surface splendor versus sweep Emissivity ~ r - 1.3 Distribution of 6.7 keV line as a tracer of the hard "warm" part Corrected for 6.7 keV line discharge starting in the milder ~ 1 keV plasma

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The GC Bipolar Lobes saw by Chandra Galactic plane Apparently warm surge from SgrA* 6\' = 15 pc Chandra smoothed, point-source evacuated 2 - 4.7 keV picture. Credit: Mark Morris

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+b 6\' = 15 pc Ratio: delicate (2– 4.7 keV)/hard (4.7 – 8 keV) emanation (most point sources evacuated)

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Locations of point sources (Muno et al.)

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(Muno et

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