Digestion: Transformations and Interactions Chapter 7Slide 2
Introduction Energy Heat for temperature upkeep Mechanical to move muscles Electrical for nerve driving forces Chemical-how vitality is put away in sustenance and body ( ATP) Metabolism Release of vitality, water, and carbon dioxideSlide 3
Chemical Reactions in the Body Energy digestion after retention How body acquires & utilizes vitality from nourishment Where does a considerable measure of digestion happen? In Cells, liver cells particularly Anabolism – buildup rxn\'s Requires vitality to manufacture body\'s mixes Catabolism – hydrolysis rxn\'s Releases vitality when mixes are separatedSlide 5
A Typical CellSlide 6
Inside the cell film lies the cytoplasm, a cross section sort structure that backings and controls the development of the cell\'s structures. A protein-rich jam like liquid called cytosol fills the spaces inside the cross section. The cytosol contains the proteins required in glycolysis. an A different inward film encases the cell\'s core. Inside the core are The chromosomes, Which contain the hereditary material DNA. Known as the "powerhouses" of the cells, the mitochondria are complicatedly collapsed layers that house every one of the chemicals required in the transformation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA, unsaturated fat oxidation, the TCA cycle, and the electron transport chain. This system of layers is known as smooth endoplasmic reticulum—the site of lipid combination. Harsh endoplasmic reticulum is specked with ribosomes—the site of protein combination. A layer encases every cell\'s substance and manages the section of atoms all through the cell.Slide 7
Chemical Reactions in the BodySlide 8
ANABOLIC REACTIONS Glycogen Triglycerides Protein Uses vitality Uses vitality Uses vitality + Glucose Glycerol + Fatty acids Amino acids + Amino acids Glucose Anabolic responses incorporate the making of glycogen, triglycerides, and protein; these responses require contrasting measures of vitality. CATABOLIC REACTIONS Glycogen Triglycerides Protein Glucose Glycerol Amino acids Fatty acids Yields vitality Yields vitality Yields vitality Yields vitality Catabolic responses incorporate the breakdown of glycogen, triglycerides, and protein; the further catabolism of glucose, glycerol, unsaturated fats, and amino acids discharges varying measures of vitality. A significant part of the vitality discharged is caught in the obligations of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).Slide 9
Metabolism in the Body Transfer of vitality in responses – ATP Released amid breakdown of glucose, unsaturated fats, and amino acids Form of phosphate gatherings Negative charge – helpless against hydrolysis Provides vitality for all phone exercises Coupled responses Efficiency Heat misfortuneSlide 10
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) + Adenosine 3 phosphate bunchesSlide 11
Capture/Release of Energy by ATPSlide 12
Energy is discharged when a high-vitality phosphate security in ATP is broken. Similarly as a battery can be utilized to give vitality to an assortment of employments, the vitality from ATP can be utilized to do a large portion of the body\'s work—contract muscles, transport mixes, make new particles, and the sky is the limit from there. With the departure of a phosphate aggregate, high-vitality ATP (charged battery) turns out to be low-vitality ADP (utilized battery). ATP ADP 1 ATP breakdown ATP ADP + P Energy is required when a phosphate gathering is connected to ADP, making ATP. Similarly as an utilized battery needs vitality from an electrical outlet to get energized, ADP (utilized battery) needs vitality from the breakdown of sugar, fat, and protein to make ATP (revived battery). 2 ATP combination 2Slide 13
Helpers in Metabolic Rxn\'s Enzymes Facilitators of metabolic responses Coenzymes Organic Associate with proteins Without coenzyme, a chemical can\'t workSlide 14
II. Separate Nutri . for Energy Digestion Carbohydrates into glucose & different monosaccharides Fats (triglycerides) into glycerol and unsaturated fats Proteins into amino acids Digestion Products: particles of glucose, glycerol, amino acids, and unsaturated fats Catabolism Carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogenSlide 15
Nutrient Breakdown for Energy Two vitality discharging mixes set out toward TCA cycle and electron transport chain Pyruvate 3-carbon structure Can be utilized to make glucose Acetyl CoA 2-carbon structure Cannot be utilized to make glucoseSlide 16
Acetate (coenzyme A missing) PyruvateSlide 17
Breaking Down Nutrients for EnergySlide 18
5 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 4 Protein Fat Carbohydrate Fatty acids Amino acids Glucose Glycerol Pyruvate All of the vitality yielding supplements—protein, sugar, and fat—can be separated to acetyl CoA. 1 Acetyl CoA Acetyl CoA can enter the TCA cycle. TCA cycle Most of the responses above discharge hydrogen particles with their electrons, which are conveyed by coenzymes to the electron transport chain. Electron transport chain ATP is combined. 4 5 Hydrogen particles respond with oxygen to create water. ATP WaterSlide 19
Glucose has 6 carbonsSlide 20
Glycerol has 3 carbonsSlide 21
Amino acids have shifting no\'s. of carbonsSlide 22
Breaking Down Nutrients for Energy – Glucose to pyruvate Glycolysis For short vitality blasts and TCA cycle prep 1 glucose yields 2 pyruvate Hydrogen molecules conveyed to electron transport chain Pyruvate can be changed over back to glucose Liver cells and kidneys (to some degree)Slide 23
Glucose to Pyruvate Glycolysis Fructose and galactose enter same pathway glucose is on Needs ATP for kick off record://E:/Media/Animations/chapter7/0705.htmlSlide 24
Glucose A little ATP is utilized to begin glycolysis. Utilizes vitality (ATP) Galactose and fructose enter glycolysis at better places, however all proceed on a similar pathway. Utilizes vitality (ATP) In a progression of responses, the 6-carbon glucose is changed over to other 6-carbon mixes, which in the long run split into two compatible 3-carbon mixes. Coenzyme To Electron Transport Chain A little ATP is created, and coenzymes convey the hydrogens and their electrons to the electron transport chain. Coenzyme Yields vitality (ATP) These 3-carbon mixes experience a progression of changes, delivering another 3-carbon aggravate, each marginally unique. Take note of: These bolts point down demonstrating the breakdown of glucose to pyruvate amid vitality digestion. (Then again, the bolts could point up showing the making of glucose from pyruvate, however that is not the concentration of this exchange.) Eventually, the 3-carbon mixes are changed over to pyruvate. Glycolysis of one atom of glucose produces two particles of pyruvate. Yields vitality (ATP) 2 PyruvateSlide 26
Breaking Down Glucose for Energy Pyruvate\'s choices Quick vitality needs – anaerobic Pyruvate - to-lactate or back to glucose Slower vitality needs – vigorous Pyruvate - to-acetyl CoA (irreversible to glucose)Slide 27
Breaking Down Glucose for Anaerobic Energy Pyruvate transformation to lactate Pyruvate acknowledges hydrogens Occurs amid high-power work out, has restricted minutes Produces ATP immediately when excessively few mitochondria or low oxygen Accumulation of lactate in muscles from fast glycolysis Liver\'s Cori cycle-lactate back to glucoseSlide 28
Breaking Down Glucose for Anaerobic EnergySlide 29
In the liver: In the muscle: Glucose comes back to the muscles Glucose Coenzyme Uses vitality (ATP) Yields vitality (ATP) Coenzyme Lactate goes to the liver 2 Pyruvate 2 Lactate 2 Lactate Liver compounds can change over lactate to glucose, however this response requires vitality. The way toward changing over lactate from the muscles to glucose in the liver that can be come back to the muscles is known as the Cori cycle. Working muscles separate the vast majority of their glucose atoms anaerobically to pyruvate. On the off chance that the cells need adequate mitochondria or without adequate oxygen, pyruvate can acknowledge the hydrogens from glucose breakdown and get to be lactate. This change liberates the coenzymes with the goal that glycolysis can proceed. NOTE: Other figures in this section concentrate barely on the carbons of pyruvate. Its oxygen gathering is incorporated into this figure to all the more plainly represent this response. See definitions for the compound structures of pyruvate and lactate.Slide 30
In the liver: Glucose Uses vitality (ATP) 2 Lactate Cori Cycle Stepped ArtSlide 31
Breaking Down Glucose for AEROBIC Energy Pyruvate-to-Acetyl CoA Pyruvate enters mitochondria of cell Carbon evacuated – gets to be carbon dioxide 2-carbon compound joins with CoA getting to be acetyl CoA – irreversibleSlide 32
Breaking Down Glucose for AEROBIC EnergySlide 33
2 Pyruvate Coenzyme To Electron Transport Chain Coenzyme 2 CoA Coenzyme 2 Carbon dioxide CoA 2 Acetyl CoA To TCA Cycle Each pyruvate loses a carbon as carbon dioxide and grabs an atom of CoA, getting to be acetyl CoA. The bolt goes just a single route (down) on the grounds that the progression is not reversible.Slide 34
Breaking Down Glucose for AEROBIC Energy… now or later Acetyl CoA\'s choices – 2 capacities Synthesize fats when ATP is plenteous Any atom that can make acetyl CoA can make fat (glucose, glycerol, greasy/amino acids) Acetyl CoA itself can just make unsaturated fats Generate more ATP through TCA cycle than glycolysis Hydrogens – electron transport chainSlide 35
Paths of Pyruvate and Acetyl CoA Glucose Glycerol Amino acids (glucogenic) Pyruvate Lactate Amino acids (ketogenic) Fatty acids Acetyl CoA NOTE: Amino acids that can be utilized to make glucose are called glucogenic ; amino acids that are changed over to acetyl CoA are called ketogenic .Slide 36
Summary of Glucose to Acetyl CoASlide 37
Glucose Coenzyme To Electron Transport Chain Coenzyme 2 Pyruvate Coenzyme 2 CoA To Electron Transport Chain Coenzyme 2 Carbon dioxide CoA IN SUMMARY 1 gl
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