Diversions and collaboration .

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Atomic hypercycle (Eigen, 1971). autocatalysis. heterocatalytic help. Parasites in the hypercycle (Maynard Smith, 1979). parasite. cut off. The stochastic corrector model for compartmentation. . Szathm
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Recreations and participation Eörs Szathmáry Collegium Budapest Eötvös University

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Molecular hypercycle (Eigen, 1971) autocatalysis heterocatalytic help

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Parasites in the hypercycle (Maynard Smith, 1979) hamper

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The stochastic corrector show for compartmentation Szathmáry, E. & Demeter L. (1987) Group determination of early replicators and the cause of life. J. theor Biol. 128, 463-486. Dim, D., Hutson, V. & Szathmáry, E. (1995) A reconsideration of the stochastic corrector display. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 262, 29-35.

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Group determination of early replicators Many a greater number of compartments than layouts inside any compartment No relocation (combination) between compartments Each compartment has just a single parent Group choice is exceptionally proficient Selection for replication synchrony

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Bubbles and penetrability We don\'t know where lipids ready to shape layers had originated from!!!

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A contextual investigation: damaged meddling particles (DIPs) DIP is a hyperparasite of the standard infection (SV) Gains a replicative preferred standpoint when supplemented Usually shorter atom Would be the champ in a very much blended stream reactor No opportunity to settle in organized populaces

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A quality gathering model for infections

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DI: V diversion Payoff framework for two players V DI V 2 an a DI b 0 There is secured polymorphism when b > 2 a

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Another rendering of the DIV amusement

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Chicken and Hawk-Dove recreations In the natural writing, this diversion is alluded to as Hawk-Dove. The most punctual presentation of a type of the Hawk-Dove diversion was by John Maynard Smith and George Price in their 1973 Nature paper, "The rationale of creature conflict". The conventional result lattice for the Hawk-Dove diversion is given here , where V is the estimation of the challenged asset, and C is the cost of a heightened battle. It is (quite often) expected that the estimation of the asset is not as much as the cost of a battle is, i.e., C > V > 0. On the off chance that C ≤ V, the subsequent amusement is not a round of Chicken.

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Evolutionarily Stable Strategy (ESS) V=1, C=2 If an intruder plays Hawk (P=1) or Dove (P=0), the result to the trespasser is ¼ in both cases An intruder plays sell with likelihood P and pigeon with likelihood 1 – P ; and the occupants play peddle and dove with equivalent likelihood. In this way, the four conceivable results when an inhabitant meets a trespasser have probabilities :

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ESS II. Increasing these by the settlements for each of the four cases, we find that when an inhabitant meets a trespasser, it wins the accompanying result by and large: Payoff intruder against trespasser: Because this is never more noteworthy than the result to an occupant, no technique can attack: The occupant procedure P = 1/2 is in this way an ESS.

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Evolutionary Stability in the Hawk-Dove amusement The normal result for various types of challenges in the hawk–dove diversion, when the inhabitant populace is at the developmentally stable technique (ESS) ( P = 0.5, where P is the likelihood that an individual plays peddle as opposed to dove).

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The ESS, verbally The ESS is the best answer to itself (Nash balance) If there is an option best answer, then the answer of the ESS to the intruder must be superior to anything the trespasser \'r answer to itself (dependability condition)

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Prisoner\'s Dilemma

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Bacteriophage amusement Using bacteriophage φ6, a RNA viral parasite of E. coli . Their genealogical supply of φ6 had been spread at low thickness, with the end goal that normally just a solitary phage contaminated every host. By proliferating φ6 for 250 eras at higher thickness, so that roughly five phage tainted every cell, they determined a strain, φH2, which had developed higher focused capacity to the detriment of a lower effectiveness of transmission. The upper hand of this strain as a component of its recurrence was resolved to have an approximately twofold favorable position over its progenitor when uncommon and a littler preferred standpoint when normal

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Other infections play the Prisoners " Dilemma amusement F( A ) The wellness of φH2 in respect to its predecessor φ6 diminishes with recurrence, yet is still more prominent than 1 when it is regular ( red specks ). Along these lines, φH2 will attack a populace of φ6, however φ6 can\'t attack φH2. Red specks demonstrate mean ± s.e.m.; dashed lines are relapses with 95% certainty interims. The blue specks and lower lines demonstrate a control analyze, in which φ6 was gone up against another clone indistinguishable aside from the nearness of a marker quality utilized as a part of the wellness test. ( B ) The result lattice assessed from A . Every passage gives the wellness of φ6 ( best line ) or φH2 ( base line ) when either φ6 ( left ) or φH2 ( right ) is normal.

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Nature 420, 360-363 (2002). Family choice of particles on the stones

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Maximum as a component of atom length Target and replicase effectiveness Copying constancy Trade-off among every one of the three qualities: assuming the worst possible scenario

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Evolution of replicases on the stones All capacities coevolve and enhance in spite of the tradeoffs Increased dispersion annihilates the framework Kin choice on the stones

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Hamilton \'s run b r > c b : help given to beneficiary r: level of hereditary relatedness amongst altruist and beneficiary c: cost to altruist regarding wellness Formula legitimate for INVASION and MAINTENANCE APPLIES TO THE FRATERNAL TRANSITIONS!!!

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Evolving populace Error rate Replicase action

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"Stationary" populace productive replicases parasites

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Slime form fruiting body

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Schematic drawing of sludge shape life cycle

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Slime form sexual multiplication

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One amoeboid cells

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Slime form accumulation Amoebas amass around one concentration Amoeboid shape changes into bipolar

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Propagation of cAMP flag Focal cell discharges a measurements of cAMP and after that gets to be distinctly idle for some time Surrounding cells move towards higher cAMP and they discharge cAMP additionally

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Formation of Dictyostelium fruiting body In the slug pre-stalk cells go first Finally, pre-spores make it to the top

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Cheaters in myxobacteria (Lenski & Velicer, 2000) P formatively capable C con artist (goes to stalk)

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Public merchandise and E. coli We developed two Escherichia coli strains that restate the communication of makers and nonproducers . The benefit of all in this framework is a film penetrable Rhl autoinducer atom , rewired to actuate anti-infection (chloramphenicol; Cm) resistance quality expression. Generally isogenic, green fluorescent protein (GFP)–marked makers blend the Rhl autoinducer constitutively, though nonfluorescent nonproducers don\'t. The framework showed the normal properties for open great makers and nonproducers. In the first place, in anti-toxin containing media, makers developed in a thickness subordinate way that was canceled when a manufactured autoinducer was exogenously provided, demonstrating that autoinducer generation was restricting. Second, when begun from a similar beginning thickness, immaculate societies of nonproducers developed slower than unadulterated societies of makers in anti-toxin However, expansion of either engineered autoinducer or sans cell molded medium (containing autoinducer made by makers) expanded nonproducer development in anti-toxin containing media.

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Simpson \'s oddity

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Experimental information on E. coli populaces An autoinducer of anti-microbial resistance

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Yeast snowdrift amusement Sucrose debased by invertase to yield glucose in the periplasmic space Only 1% of glucose caught by a similar cell

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Both can attack when uncommon {c=0.02, ϵ =0.01} {c=0.02, b=0.01} P c - P d f

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Extinction of cooperators By histidine focus we can control the cost of participation

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Population structure and relatedness in a bacterial subpopulation Proteins for collaboration emitted or situated on the external layer

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Relatedness, exchange and relocation

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External protein qualities are profoundly portable

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