DNA Technology .

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DNA Innovation. DNA Extraction. Substance medicines cause cells and cores to blast The DNA is intrinsically sticky , and can be hauled out of the blend This is called "spooling" DNA. "Spooled" DNA. Cutting DNA. Confinement chemicals cut DNA at particular successions
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DNA Technology

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DNA Extraction Chemical medications cause cells and cores to blast The DNA is inalienably sticky , and can be hauled out of the blend This is called "spooling" DNA

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"Spooled" DNA

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Cutting DNA Restriction compounds cut DNA at particular groupings Useful to partition DNA into reasonable sections

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Electrophoresis DNA can be isolated in light of size and charge The phosphate gatherings are contrarily charged DNA is put in a gel and power is go through

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Electrophoresis Negative DNA moves toward the positive end Smaller pieces move more remote and quicker

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Steps in DNA Sequencing Many duplicates of a solitary strand of DNA are set in a test tube DNA polymerase is included A blend of nucleotides is included some of which have color particles appended Each base (A,T,C,G) has an alternate shading color

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Steps in DNA Sequencing By possibility, some colored nucleotides & some standard ones are included Dye atoms are substantial and prevent the chain from developing

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DNA Sequencing The outcome is DNA sections of different sizes with hues that can be recognized

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DNA Sequencing After the gel isolates the subsequent pieces by size, we "read" the succession from base to beat .

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Copying DNA Polymerase Chain Reaction Also called PCR A strategy for making many duplicates of a bit of DNA

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Steps in Copying DNA A DNA atom is put in a little test tube DNA polymerase that can work at high temps is included

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Steps in Copying DNA The DNA is warmed to isolate the two strands Primers , short bits of DNA integral to the closures of the particle to be replicated, are included

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Copying DNA The tube is cooled, and DNA polymerase adds new bases to the isolated strands

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PCR Large measures of DNA can be produced using a little beginning example

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Cloning Clone - an individual from a gathering of hereditarily indistinguishable cells May be created by abiogenetic generation (mitosis)

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Cloning living beings A body cell from one life form and an egg cell from another are melded The subsequent cell separates like a typical incipient organism

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Cloning "Dolly"

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Human Genome Project

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Human Genome Project Started in 1990 Research push to arrangement the majority of our DNA (46 chromosomes) Over 3.3 billion nucleotides Mapping each quality area (loci) Conducted by researchers around the globe

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HGP Insights Only 2% of human genome codes for proteins (exons) Other 98% (introns ) are non-coding Only around 20,000 to 25,000 qualities (expected 100,000) Proteome – living being\'s entire arrangement of proteins About 8 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) – places where people vary by a solitary nucleotide About ½ of genome originates from transposons (bits of DNA that move to various areas on chromosomes)

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Benefits of Human Genome Project Improvements in restorative aversion of infection, quality treatments, finding methods … Production of valuable protein items for use in drug, horticulture, bioremediation and pharmaceutical ventures. Enhanced bioinformatics – utilizing PCs to help in DNA sequencing …

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Benefits of Genetic Engineering

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Biotechnology - The utilization of quality science to make new items from plants and creatures

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Biotechnology Provides: Improved sustenance items Medica l propels An upgraded situation

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Herbicide Resistant Crops Soybeans: Roundup Ready Corn: Roundup Ready, Liberty Link Cotton: BXN, Roundup Ready Canola: Liberty Link, Roundup Ready + CP4 EPSPS = Roundup gene Ready

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Biotechnology Breakthroughs Insulin (1982) First business biotech item Reliable, economical wellspring of insulin Rice Enriched with beta-carotene and iron Bananas Containing consumable hepatitis antibody

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Biotechnology Breakthroughs Potatoes with higher strong substance Garli c that brings down cholesterol Fruits and vegetables that reduce risks of growth and coronary illness

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Environmental Benefits Reduced pesticide utilize Lower vitality necessities Cleaner water Less soil disintegration

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