Early English Outer History.

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Development on Stonehenge in southwest Britain starts (c. 2800 BCE) ... Claudius following a 3 year military battle and 40,000 Roman occupation power. ...
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Early English External History Pre-English Era

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I. Neolithic Era (c. 5000-2000 BCE) Evidence of non-Indo European talking bunches. Development on Stonehenge in southwest Britain starts (c. 2800 BCE)

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II. Bronze Age (2000-500 BCE) Evidence of Indo-European talking societies, for the most part agrarian (ranchers).

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III. Celtic Stage Celtic gatherings start to touch base around 750 BCE. A wide range of Celtic gatherings including the Britons (subsequently the term Britannia) Many Celtic dialects talked are Gaelic and Brythonic (Britannic) See Handout

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IV. Latin (Celtic Contact) Stage 55 BC Celtic Britain is attacked by Roman powers (Julius Caesar). 43 AD Conquest is finished under the Emperor Claudius following a 3 year military battle and 40,000 Roman occupation power. Romans hold political force for more than 300 years (until 410 AD) and Latin capacities as the "official" dialect of government and religion. Numerous however not every single Celtic individuals believer to Christianity. Celtic impact stays exceptionally solid amid this period. Numerous people group are bilingual.

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IV. Latin (Celtic Contact) Stage 410 AD Roman strengths start to pull back, generally in light of the fact that troops are required in different parts of Europe (eg. Germanic tribe Visigoths attack Rome in 410 AD). Celtic gatherings that remain face strikes from the north (from Picts and Scots) and from Germanic tribes from the European terrain. NOTE: The Germanic tribes additionally had contact with Latin speakers while living on the landmass, so this can be considered and before phase of contact with Latin preceding the rise of English. See Handout

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B. English Period V. Germanic (Anglo-Saxon) Stage 449 AD Celtic (British) pioneer Vortigern welcomes different Germanic tribes (Angles, Saxons, Jutes) into a collusion against Picts and Scots which the thrashing. Prompts progressive rushes of intrusion/occupation/settlement throughout the following 100 years.

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V. Germanic (Anglo-Saxon) Stage 449 AD Jutes, a relative little gathering, settle in the zone of Kent. 477-495 AD Saxons settle in the South (Sussex) and West (Wessex). 547 AD Angles (biggest and most different gathering) settle in the East, focal inside and the North, the regions we know today as East Anglia, the Midlands, and Norththumbria.

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V. Germanic (Anglo-Saxon) Stage Relationships between Celtic gatherings and Germanic gatherings were mind boggling. In a few territories, there is proof of absorption. In different regions there is confirmation of wild resistance and even separate gatherings living in nearness to each other. A few (however not every) British Celt crashed into Wales, Cornwall, Ireland, and Brittany (Northwest Coast of France).

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V. Germanic (Anglo-Saxon) Stage Organized political resistance by the Celtic gatherings proceeds through the mid sixth century with a noteworthy British triumph by a Celtic King named Arthur in 500 AD. 540 AD Gildas (a Celtic pastor) composes The Fall of Britain in Latin.

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The Seven Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms Called The Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy Kent, Sussex, Wessex, Essex, East Anglia, Mercia, and Northumbria. Four of these are the most critical.

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Four Major A-S Kingdoms 1. Kent (early Jutes): Relatively little kingdom however they are huge in light of the fact that they are the first to change over to Christianity in the sixth century (Augustine, a Roman evangelist touches base in 597 AD). In any case, Christian and local religious convictions will keep on coexisting for a long time.

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Four Major A-S Kingdoms 2. Northumbria turns into the overwhelming kingdom in the seventh century. Change to Christianity prompts the foundation of religious communities at Lindisfarne and Jarrow. Lindisfarne Gospels (698) composed, a Latin content with interlined OE rework. Additionally Caedmom , one of the most established wonderful vernacular works is composed here.

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Four Major A-S Kingdoms Mercia turns into the overwhelming kingdom in the eighth century. Northumbria is lessened by progressive Viking attacks (787 AD ff.). Change to Christianity and the impact of Latin permit this territory to wind up one of the main scholarly focuses in Europe.

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Four Major A-S Kingdoms Wessex turns into the predominant kingdom from the ninth century forward. Lord Alfred (849-899) joins the A-S Kingdoms after his annihilation of (or détente with) the Vikings. Recovers London in 886 and is perceived as King of England, the grounds south of the Danelaw. Restoration of learning and grant as Alfred conveys a considerable lot of the Mercian researchers to Wessex. Somewhat English Saxon Chronicles composed amid this period. By 1000 AD Angelcynn (Angle-family) > England

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VI. Latin Influence (Second Stage) While the primary Latin phase of impact was basically political , the second stage was basically religious and scholarly in degree starting with the landing of the Benedictine teacher Augustine in 597 AD. Roughly 450 Latin words enter Old English amid this time.

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VII. Scandinavian Influence Covers a vast range of time, from the mid-eighth century through the start of the eleventh century (the end of the OE period) More generally known as the Vikings. These are Germanic gatherings from the North: Scandinavia, Norway (Norse or Northmen) or Denmark (Danes).

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VII. Scandinavian Influence First Stage: 787-850 AD Early assaults on the northeastern shoreline of England (the territory around Northumbira) by little striking gatherings.

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VII. Scandinavian Influence Second Stage (850-878 AD) Large scale attack (more than 350 boats) by the Danish armed force that catches the northern and eastern parts of England. Ruler Alfred pushes them back and "overcomes" them in 878 ( Treaty of Wedmore ) Danelaw built up. Danes don\'t leave yet settle in these involved zones.

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VII. Scandinavian Influence Third Stage (887-1014 AD) Eventually these Northern Germanic gatherings finish the political triumph of England when the annihilation the English at the Battle of Maldon (991 AD). Norway and Denmark assault and catch London in 994. Lord of Denmark (Svein) delegated King of England in 1014. English King crashed into outcast. 1014-1039 AD England ruled by the Danish

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Scandinavian Influence: Contributions to the Language Over 1400 spot names (Derby, Rugby, Thorsby) –by = town Hard [sk] in expertise, skull, skin. Nautical and Military words Affect OE pronoun framework See page 135 and present for others commitments.

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