EARLY NONSTOCHASTIC EFFECTS .


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Survey of Dose reaction bends. ThresholdNon thresholdLinear quadratic non edge curveNon straight (s-formed or sigmoid) . Early, Nonstochastic Effects:. Not long after Rad. Exposureminuteshoursdaysweeks
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Slide 1

EARLY NONSTOCHASTIC EFFECTS/LATE STOCHASTIC EFFECTS Sherer Chapter 6, Reference: Bushong, Chapter 36 and 37

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Review of Dose reaction bends Threshold Non limit Linear quadratic non edge bend Non direct (s-formed or sigmoid)

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Early, Nonstochastic Effects: Soon after Rad. Presentation minutes hours days weeks "x-beam blazes"

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ACUTE RADIATION SYNDROMES Total body introduction intense presentation in a matter of minutes 100\'s or 1000\'s of rads

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200-1000 rads 1000-10,000 rads 10,000 + Survive half a month 3-4 days couple of minutes RADIATION AND MAMMALS

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FOUR STAGES TOTAL BODY IRRADIATION 1) PRODROMAL (NVD SYNDROME) 2)LATENT 3) MANIFEST ILLNESS 4) RECOVERY OR DEATH

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1)Prodromal Initial can happen as low as 100 rads inside minutes with presentation to 1000 rads sickness, regurgitating, the runs (NVD)

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2) Latent period Weeks in low measurements Hours in high dosage pt shows up side effect free deadly impacts or recuperation is starting

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A) Hematologic Gastrointestinal Cardiovascular Cerebrovascular/CNS Bone Marrow 3) Manifest Illness

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AKA: bone marrow or hemotopoietic disorder Rad presentation low Stages: Prodromal (NVD) Latent Mitotic undifferentiated organisms are cleaned pancytopenia-lessened supply of platelets Death because of parchedness, electrolyte unevenness contamination A) HEMATOLOGIC

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B) GI disorder 600 rads(6 gy)- 1000 rads (10 gy) prodromal - one day inert 3-5 days-decay of the covering of the GI tract has started show of ailment demise ( lack of hydration, anorexia ) 3-4 days can\'t forestall movement of disorder

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CARDIOVASCULAR Not a disorder Decreased BP Increased heartbeat rate Acute myocardial deficiency

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C) Cerebrovascular/CNS 5000 RADS Prodromal (queasiness and heaving) inactive period 6-12 hours Death happens inside hours-to a few days GI and Hemopoietic disorder happening all the while

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L/D LD 50/30 (Sherer), LD 50/60 (Bushong) utilized as a part of creatures people have a tendency to survive longer (Chernobyl) see bend (figure 36-1) on page 519 of Bushong or LD bend on page 120 Sherer

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REPAIR? Can happen with sublethal measurements yet reliant on cell or organ\'s potential for recuperation. 10% of radiation actuated harm - unsalvageable

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LOCAL TISSUE DAMAGE High measurements decay of organ Skin-numerous x-beam pioneers endured x-beam smolders to skin

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Skin layers Subcutaneous center layer external layer (epidermis) extra structures tactile hair sebaceous sweat

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Erythema 100-300 rad - mellow inside 1-2 days Q:Dose Response bend? A: Non-direct, limit Hair misfortune –epilation Q:Dose Response bend? A: For high dosage - Non-straight, edge low measurement – direct, limit serious putrefaction uncommon

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Late physical impacts Months or years after entire or incomplete ARS OR Low measurements supported over two or three years

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WHAT ARE THE THREE MAJOR TYPES OF LATE SOMATIC EFFECTS?

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RISK ESTIMATES Low measurements (underneath 10 rem) impact must be evaluated Risk still exists –controversial idea Absolute hazard –specific # of abundance tumors will come about because of introduction Relative hazard - # of overabundance growths will increment as the characteristic rate of malignancy increments in the populace with age

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Carcinogenesis Distinguishing radiation actuated disease from low dosages troublesome. Why? Epidemiologic reviews from high measurements are utilized. Cases include: Radium watch dial painters Uranium diggers Early Radiation specialists Infants treated with radiation for expanded thymus Children of Marshall Island Japanese nuclear bomb survivors Evacuees from Chernobyl

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Radium dial laborers Uranium mineworkers Early Medical radiation specialists Infants treated for amplified thymus Children of Marshall Islands Japanese nuclear bomb survivors Chernobyl Thyroid Leukemia Breast disease Bone tumor Skin malignancy Lung growth Match the pathology (can utilize more than once)

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EXTREMITIES Amputations radiodermatitis shoe fluoroscopy nuc med. specialists

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LIFE SPAN SHORTENING CATARCTOGENESIS GENETIC EFFECTS

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American RT\'s Ongoing investigation of 146,000 RT\'s Higher danger of biting the dust? Higher danger of kicking the bucket from leukemia? Higher danger of passing on from bosom tumor? At the point when did these dangers turn out to be less?

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GONADS Highly touchy can pass on impacts to future eras creature ponders/radiotherapy patients, radiation mishap casualties, convicts oogonia spermatogonia

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TESTES 10 rad effect? 200-250 rads effect? 500-600 rads effect?

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OVARIES 10 rad impact? more delicate in hatchling/little children why? 200 rad impact? 500-625 rads compare this range with guys why the difference?

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An) investigation of the hereditary qualities of cells B) another sort of karaoke machine C) a chromosome outline) a chromosome deviation Cytogenetic Not!!! Amend reply. Utilized for cytogenetic investigation Structural harm A karyotype is

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To Be proceeded with See control point entitled Chapter 8

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