Earth Earthenware production Region Source NESHAP May 23, 2007.

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Pb outflows from Clay Ceramics operations (~4.5 tpy) little ... Materialness mud earthenware production fabricating offices that are region sources with ...
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Earth Ceramics Area Source NESHAP May 23, 2007 CERMA - PITTSBURGH

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Definitions Under the Clean Air Act, a range source is characterized as a stationary source that can possibly transmit under 10 tons for each year of any single HAP, or 25 tons for each year of any mix of HAPs. Incorporates every one of the 188 HAPs, not only the urban HAPs

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Background – Area Source NESHAP Section 112(k) of the CAA obliges EPA to: build up a urban air toxics methodology recognize no less than 30 urban HAPs list range source classifications guarantee 90% of the outflows of each urban HAPs from zone sources are liable to principles (by November 15, 2000)

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Court Schedule Court Order - March 31, 2006 Contained due dates for territory source classes under 112(k) 4 source classifications by December 15, 2006 6 source classifications by June 15, 2007 10 source classifications by December 15, 2007 10 source classes by June 15, 2008 10 source classes by December 15, 2008 10 source classifications by June 15, 2009

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Background – Area Source NESHAP Individually zone sources are little emitters Many sources radiate under 100 pounds of HAPs There are various offices Sources are hard to find Many are little organizations Most have not been directed before Many sources emanate fine particulate matter, antecedents for ozone, and lead Collectively, these sources are imperative poisonous supporters in urban regions

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Clay Ceramics Area Source Listing Listed in the November 2002 FR notice as Clay Products. Two source classifications will be tended to: Clay Ceramics Brick and Structural Clay Products (BSCP) – last container – might not have principle Listed for lead, manganese, chromium, and nickel NEI (1990) indicated 16 tpy of HAP metal emanations for Clay Ceramics and BSCP joined (Pb = 12 tpy). Current gauge = 9 tpy HAP metals from Clay Ceramic assembling operations. (Cr = 35%, Pb = half, Ni = 10%, and Mn/Cd = 5%) Pb outflows from Clay Ceramics operations (~4.5 tpy) little contrasted with aggregate territory source Pb emanations across the country (450 tpy). Leaded coatings utilized by 2 territory sources.

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Industry Sectors sanitaryware tile dinnerware earthenware

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Issues Addressed During Standard Development – Clay Ceramics . Procedures to be directed/controlled Applicability edge Urban HAP (metals) versus All HAP (metals, HF, HCl) Level of control and related Monitoring, Reporting & Recordkeeping (MR&R)

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Work Performed – Clay Ceramics Developed discharge elements Estimated across the country benchmark outflows Developed GACT and MR&R alternatives Estimated expenses of the choices Identified little organizations (most use< 250 tpy wet coating) Prepared draft proposition (preface and administer)

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Sanitaryware e.g., toilets, sinks 10 range source plants 1 plant is little business Tile e.g., floor, divider 15 region source plants 12 plants - little organizations Dinnerware/Pottery - Mechanized, mass created Commercial, for the most part dinnerware 28 zone source plants 22 plants - little organizations Dinnerware/Pottery - Individual Artisan Potteries Mostly hand-made product of different sorts Individual potters, group focuses, instructive foundations (< 50 tpy earth) Non-benefit and business ~ 10,000 offices excluded in source class Clay Ceramics Industry Sectors

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Clay Ceramics – Area Sources (53 plants) American Standard, Inc. Chandler AZ Catalina China, Inc. Tucson AZ Westminster Ceramics Inc. Bakersfield CA Jeffrey Court, Inc. Crown CA Homexx International Corona CA Westile, Inc Corona CA Burden China Co., Inc. El Monte CA B & W Tile Co. Gardena CA Clay Design, Inc. Long Beach CA Justice Design Group Los Angeles CA Hans Sumpf Co., Inc. Madera CA Handcraft Tile, Inc. Milpitas CA B & W Tile Co. Riverside CA Toto Industries Inc. Atlanta GA Toto Industries Morrow GA Pickard, Inc. Antioch IL Haeger Industries, Inc.. E. Dundee IL Kokomo Sanitary Pottery Co. Kokomo IN Ceramics Designs Inc. Cunningham KY  Florida Tile Inc. Lawrenceburg KY Louisville Stoneware Co. Louisville KY Monroe Salt Works Inc . Monroe ME  F.W. Ritter Sons Co.. S. Rockwood MI Red Wing Stoneware Co. Red Wing MN Crane Plumbing Nevada MO Gail Pittman China Ridgeland MS Salty Dog Pottery Barnstead NH

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Clay Ceramics – Area Sources (cont) Lenape Products, Inc. Trenton NJ Mackenzie-Childs Ltd. Aurora NY Niagara Ceramics Corp. Wild ox NY Syracuse China Co. Syracuse NY Lenox, Inc. Kinston NC Ironrock Capital Inc. Canton OH East Palestine China E. Palestine OH  Hall China Co.. E. Liverpool OH Summitville Tiles, Inc. Minerva OH Workshops of Gerald E. Henn Pottery, Inc. New Waterford OH American Standard Tiffin OH Hartstone Pottery Zanesville OH Frankoma Pottery Sapulpa OK Eljer Inc Ford City, PA Crossville Ceramics Co .Crossville TN Crossville Ceramics Co. Dickson TN Lone Star Ceramics Mfg. Co. DallasT X Interceramic Garland TX Gilmer Potteries, Inc. Gilmer TX   Crane Plumbing LLC Hearne TX Crane Plumbing LLC Hondo TX Bennington Potters, Inc. Bennington VT Emerson Creek Pottery, Inc. Bedford VA Williamsburg Pottery Factory, Inc. Williamsburg VA Quarry Tile Co. Spokane WA Homer Laughlin China Co. Newell WV

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Clay Ceramics Emission Sources - Glazing Various techniques for applying coating to earth product. Splash, plunge covered, hand-connected, other Only shower coat operations that atomize are relied upon to have air outflows – basically from overspray. Represent ~90% of HAP metal outflows Lead included as a fluxing specialist in just dinnerware/ceramics part. Leaded coatings willfully eliminated over recent years aside from 2 substantial dinnerware plants (Niagara Ceramics, Syracuse China). Different metals (Cr, Ni, Cd, Mn, As, Be) included much littler amounts as colorants or shading enhancers. Add-on controls for coating splash stalls – BH, WS, water drape

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Clay Ceramics Emission Sources – Kilns Firing Glazed Ware More than 95% of all earth artistic items are covered with a coating and after that let go in a furnace Urban HAP emanations – basically volatilized metals from the coating Account for ~10% HAP metal discharges . No current extra controls for zone sources

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Proposed Area Source NESHAP Applicability – mud earthenware production fabricating offices that are territory sources with atomized coat shower corners or furnaces that flame coat clay product. Excluded – artisan potters, craftsmanship studios, schools, colleges – utilize under 50 TPY of wet mud Compliance Date - Final Rule (~12/07) Affected sources Atomized coat shower stalls Kilns that flame coated earthenware product

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> 250 TPY of wet coating at office ** Air contamination control gadget or Wet coatings <0.1% urban HAP metals ** - Does exclude coats <0.1 urban HAP metals ≤ 250 TPY of wet coating at office ** Waste minimization or Air contamination control gadget or Wet coatings <0.1% urban HAP metals ** - Does exclude coats <0.1 urban HAP metals Standards-Glaze Spray Booths

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Standards - Kilns Peak temperature < 2,700 F and Use common gas or Equivalent clean copying fuel or Electric controlled oven

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Monitoring Requirements Kiln Daily check of terminating temperature Glaze splash corners with air contamination controls Existing week by week visual review or exchange observing under 63.8 (f) New/Reconstructed every day check of working parameter or day by day 30-minute Method 22 or interchange observing under 63.8 (f)

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Clay Ceramics Mfg. Real Source Rule Promulgated May 16, 2003 Compliance date  May 16 , 2006 8 noteworthy sources (on account of co-found outflows) Existing, new and remade furnaces  Use normal gas or identical as oven fuel New or recreated burrow ovens: Emission limits for passage furnaces terminating <10 tons every hour: - HF < 0.057 lb/ton of let go item (90% diminishment) -HCl < 0.26 lb/ton or let go item (30% decrease) -PM < 0.42 lb/ton of let go item Emission limits for passage ovens terminating ≥ 10 tons for every hour: - HF < 0.057 lb/ton of let go item (90% lessening) -HCl < 0.056 lb/ton or let go item (85% diminishment) -PM < 0.12 lb/ton of let go item Operating points of confinement taking into account kind of control hardware Vacated in Court Decision – 3/13/07

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