EE2F2 - Music Technology .

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Stereo Recording. The human listening to framework is unbelievably great at restricting sound.Question: How would we tell what course sounds are coming from?Amplitude contrasts between the earsTime/stage contrasts between the earsSpectral contrasts in the sound substance between the earsCorrelation with head movementVisual signals.
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2. Stereo and Multi-track Recording EE2F2 - Music Technology

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Stereo Recording The human hearing framework is staggeringly great at confining sound. Address: How would we tell what course sounds are originating from? Abundancy contrasts between the ears Time/stage contrasts between the ears Spectral contrasts in the sound substance between the ears Correlation with head development Visual prompts

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Rayleigh\'s Duplex Theory At low frequencies (< 1 kHz) Level distinction is little (stable diffracts around head) Phase distinction is critical Brain utilizes stage distinction to confine sound At high frequencies (> 4 kHz) Phase contrast is uncertain (± n .360°) Level contrast is huge (up to 20 dB or more) Brain uses level contrast At mid-run frequencies (1-4 kHz) Some mix of the two

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At low frequencies Each ear hears the total of both speakers (one of which is deferred) If L & R are diverse levels, this makes a stage contrast. The cerebrum utilizes this as a spatial sign Blumlein Stereo Invented in 1931 and still the most well known stereophonic method Two speakers are utilized Virtual sources (known as apparition pictures) are made by playing a similar sound through every speaker, except at various amplitudes L R

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Blumlein Stereo Invented in 1931 and still the most prevalent stereophonic procedure Two speakers are utilized Virtual sources (known as ghost pictures) are made by playing a similar sound through every speaker, except at various amplitudes At high frequencies Sound can\'t diffract around the head The head "shadows" sound from one speaker The mind utilizes plentifulness contrasts as spatial signals L R

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Angle between mics, 90°-180° Directional mics (typically cardioid, some of the time figure-8) NB. Sound is recorded over expansive edge (up to 360°) yet played back inside 60° circular segment between speakers The sound-stage is pressed into a smaller space Recording Blumlein Stereo Requirements Left and Right diverts must be in-stage (no time delays) Amplitude distinction between channels decides point Implementation: incidental receiver match

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Level contrast [dB] 90 120 60 150 30 Source edge 180 0 Phantom picture edge 210 330 300 240 270 Source edge Directional Response Left amplifier Right mouthpiece

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Williams bends Time Difference Stereo symbolism can be made by: Amplitude contrasts (particularly at high frequencies) Time delay (particularly at low frequencies) Combination of both

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Near-correspondent directional sets: Based on Williams bends. Abundancy and defer contrasts are recorded. Great feeling of "space" however stage cancelation conceivable. Close correspondent omni-directional sets: Delay contrasts just are recorded. Great feeling of "space" yet stage cancelation likely. Separated clusters (e.g. Decca Tree): Delay contrasts and some plentifulness contrasts are recorded. Stage cancelation issues yet it functions admirably practically speaking. Amplifier Array Options Coincident sets: Only sufficiency contrasts are recorded.

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Surround Sound Recording Similar standards are connected to encompass sound recordings Popular designs: Near-incidental exhibit of cardioids (envisioned) Spaced clusters "Soundfield" mics Surround recording methods are still in their earliest stages...

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Multi-track Recording Most cutting edge recordings are made utilizing a great deal more than only two distinct tracks These tracks are down-blended to a stereo combine (or to 5.1 encompass channels) before acing Important favorable position of multi-track machines: You don\'t need to record the majority of the tracks on the double Examples:

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Analog Multi-track Tape Recorders Features Any track can record or playback whenever. Auto-rehash office for various takes. Silent and gapless \'punch-in\' Limitations/Disadvantages High running costs Head arrangement issues Analog process so each stage includes clamor Studer Multi-track 24 tracks

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Digital Multi-track Tape Features Digital recording infers low-commotion, consummate reproducibility and so on. Video tape innovation requires a great deal less upkeep Has every one of the components of an ordinary simple machine Limitations No new elements contrasted and simple Tape-based so get to time is moderate – irregular get to is basically incomprehensible Expensive Tascam DA-98HR 8 tracks @ 44.1 kHz

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Hard Disk Recording Any cutting edge PC can record and playback advanced sound Multiple tracks can be recorded in succession and played back at the same time Limitations: Disk speed (limits number of tracks) Standard stereo sound cards just give two sources of info and two yields Professional sound card attractive including various ins/outs

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Features Tracks recorded on a hard circle can be haphazardly gotten to. This permits: Cutting, replicating and sticking of fragments or entire tracks Looping or rehashing areas Time extending, pitch moving and so forth. Likewise, utilizing the preparing limit of a normal PC you can likewise: Digitally blend and even out/dish/blur and so forth various tracks Apply continuous DSP consequences for playback Generate and blend extra sounds on playback utilizing virtual programming instruments Examples of this in another session…

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Digital Audio Interfaces Standard uproarious simple associations are undesirable in the advanced studio We\'d get a kick out of the chance to transmit computerized sound in the middle of bits of gear Solution: either the expert AES/EBU or the local S/PDIF computerized sound interfaces They\'re both offbeat serial interfaces (like RS232 or MIDI) The main contrasts between them are the flag levels and the physical associations (adjusted/uneven, electrical or optical)

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AES/EBU and S/PDIF AES/EBU & S/PDIF Data Format For every sound specimen, an "edge" is transmitted comprising of two 32-bit sub-outlines (for left and right channels) Data rate depends, in this way, on the example rate. E.g. At 48 kHz, 2x32 bits must take 1/48000 seconds. Information rate is, in this way, 3.072 Mbit/sec Each sub-outline contains: 4 bit Sync marker 24 bits of information Validity, User-characterized , Channel-status and Parity bits Subframe - A Subframe - B Sync Sample information – 24 bits Sync Sample information – 24 bits V U C P V U C P

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Summary Multi-track methods are a fundamental part of an advanced recording studio. Simple multi-track tapes have been supplanted by computerized reciprocals. Nowadays, both are being supplanted by hard circle recording advanced sound workstations. A respectable computerized sound workstation can be worked from a standard PC. This can supplant the instruments, the blenders, the tape machines, the impacts units and the acing procedure. All that they don\'t supplant is the entertainers… yet.

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