El Control: Birth Control in Latin America .

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El Control: Conception prevention in Latin America. Dara Mendelsohn College of Rochester Institute of Prescription SHSP Researcher 2010-11.
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El Control: Birth Control in Latin America Dara Mendelsohn University of Rochester School of Medicine SHSP Scholar 2010-11 © AMSA National Sexual Health Scholars Program

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Learning Objectives Discuss normal contraception techniques utilized as a part of various Latino nations Contextualize employments of particular conception prevention strategies specifically nations Organize mainstream types of anti-conception medication on a nation to-nation premise

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International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo (1994) "Regenerative rights grasp certain human rights that are as of now perceived in national laws, worldwide human rights reports and different agreement archives. These rights lay on the acknowledgment of the fundamental right of all couples and people to choose uninhibitedly and mindfully the number, dividing and timing of their youngsters and to have data and intends to do as such, and the privilege to accomplish the most noteworthy standard of sexual and conceptive wellbeing. It likewise incorporates their entitlement to settle on choices concerning propagation free of separation, pressure and viciousness, as communicated in human rights reports."

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International Foreign Aid Agencies USAID United Nations Population Fund (UNPF) International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) Population Council

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Birth Control (el Control de Natalidad or Anticoncepción) Use of medications, chemicals, gadgets, surgery or conduct trying to counteract unintended pregnancy \'Method of operation\' recognizes hormonal, mechanical, surgical, and behavioral techniques for contraception

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Hormonal Contraceptives in U.S. "The Pill" (La Píldora) Daily oral preventative pill (COCP) Progestin-just or estrogen and progestin mixes "Next day contraceptive" Emergency Contraceptive (La Piladora de Día Después) U.S. mark names incorporate ella, Plan B One-Step, Plan B, and Next Choice Vaginal ring 2-inch distance across delicate vaginal ring that is worn inside the vagina for 3 weeks on end NuvaRing Combined Injectable Contraception (Inyectable) Monthly infusion of progestin-, estradiol-just, or in blend U.S. mark names incorporate Depo-Provera , Cyclofem, Novafem, Mesigyna, Lunelle Contraceptive embed Inserted under skin U.S. mark names incorporate Norplant, Jadelle, Implanon Contraceptive "fix" Transdermal fix connected to the skin Ortho Evra

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The Pill (La Píldora) Costa Rica: 25.6 (%) United States: 16.3 Puerto Rico: 15.5 Nicaragua: 13.5 Dominican Republic: 13.4 Honduras: 11.3 El Salvador: 5.5 Mexico: 4.7 Guatemala: 3.4

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Clinical Trials of the Pill in Puerto Rico During the 1950s, George Pincus and John Rock led a few reviews on the impacts exogenous progesterone and estrogen on ovulation and ripeness, which at last prompted to the advancement of the medication as a preventative After the accomplishment of the preparatory Boston trials for the Pill in 1954 and 1955, Rock Pincus still expected to lead a substantial scale human trial all together for the medication to get FDA endorsement Rock Pincus Given the solid legitimate, social, and religious restriction to anti-conception medication in the U.S. in the 1950s, the specialists chose to lead their clinical trial in Puerto Rico

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Clinical Trials of the Pill in Puerto Rico First trial led in 1956 at a facility in Rio Pedras, a fresh out of the plastic new lodging venture outside of San Juan Pharmaceutical organization G.D. Searle gave the pills to the trial Dr. Edris Rice-Wray, an employee of the Puerto Rico Medical School and restorative executive of the Puerto Rico Family Planning Association, was responsible for the trials

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Clinical Trials of the Pill in Puerto Rico Rock chose a high measurements (10 mg) of Enovid, the organization\'s image name for their engineered oral progesterone, to guarantee that no pregnancies would happen while test subjects were on the medication Dr. Rice-Wray detailed that the Pill was 100% viable when taken legitimately, yet 17% of ladies in the review grumbled of sickness, dazedness, cerebral pains, stomach torment, and heaving She recommended that 10-mg dosage made "an excessive number of side responses be for the most part satisfactory"

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Clinical Trials of the Pill in Puerto Rico Rock and Pincus rejected Rice-Wray\'s decisions, trusting a considerable lot of the protestations were psychosomatic Pincus and Rock made no move to evaluate the underlying driver of the symptoms Pill was FDA-affirmed for preventative use in 1960

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La Píldora The Pill is presently the most well known type of anti-conception medication in the U.S. also, Costa Rica, yet it is one of the minimum prominent in Mexico While conception prevention pills in the U.S. are accessible just with a solution, they are sold over-the-counter (OTC) in drug stores in a few nations in Latin America Should the pill be sold OTC in the U.S.?

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Morning-After Pill (La Píldora de Día Después) Also known as Pastillas Anticonceptivas de Emergencia (PAE) Either 1 or 2 pills containing higher measurements of estrogen and progestin than found in Pill Taken up to 72-120 hours after unprotected sex A next day contraceptive is a questionable theme in numerous nations in Latin America It is unlawful to offer a next day contraceptive in Costa Rica

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La Píldora de Día Después Alterna (Mexico) Evital (Dominican Republic) Glanique (Mexico, DR) Imediat N (DR) Impreviat (DR) Ladiades (Mexico) Next Choice (Puerto Rico) Postday (Mexico, DR) Postinor-1 (El Salvador, Guatemala) Postinor-2 (Mexico) PPMS (Nicaragua) Pregnon (DR, Honduras) Prikul (Nicaragua) Seguidet (DR) Silogin (Mexico) Vika (Mexico)

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La Píldora de Día Después in Mexico In 2009, Mexican Supreme Court maintained choice 10-1 that a "next day contraceptive" ought to be accessible over-the-counter in medication stores crosswise over Mexico and that it ought to be offered to assault casualties in the clinic as one of the normal medicinal administrations Costs of a "next day contraceptive" range from 60-80 pesos ($4.67-$6.23 USD) Criticism from Mexico\'s Catholic Church pioneers

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La Píldora de Día Después

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Inyectable Nicaragua: 23.4 (%) El Salvador: 22.5 Honduras: 13.8 Guatemala: 9.0 Costa Rica: 5.9 Mexico: 5.0 Dominican Republic: 4.2 Puerto Rico: 2.7 United States: 1.4

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Mechanical Contraceptives Condoms (el preservativo) Diaphragms (la diafragma) Intrauterine Devices (el depositivo intrauterino) Sponges (la esponja)

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Preservativos United States: 11.7 (%) Costa Rica: 10.9 Puerto Rico: 8.8 Mexico: 6.4 El Salvador: 4.6 Nicaragua: 3.8 Honduras: 2.9 Guatemala: 2.3 Dominican Republic: 1.9

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Preservativos and the Dominican Republic (1.9) From the mid-1990s to 2003, the interest for condoms in the Dominican Republic was to a great extent met by stash from a Haitian branch of the Population Services International (PSI), a USAID-upheld extend In an endeavor to support manageability by the IPPF-supported NGO, Profamilia, and the Dominican government, USAID quit subsidizing these condoms out and out for a long time

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Preservativos and the Dominican Republic USAID continued providing condoms to the Dominican Republic in 2003 through a focused on condom social promoting venture Developed condom mark name, Panté, which is currently tremendously prevalent and represents 65% of the piece of the pie "Por Amor a la Vida, Usa Condón" (For the Love of Life, Use a Condom) Condoms are assigned to be sold at areas where grouping of sex specialists are high, similar to little corner stores and pay-by-the-hour motels, which are required by law to have two free condoms in each room At 10 pesos for a pack of four ($0.28 USD), Panté are the least expensive brand in the Dominican Republic International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) branch, Profamilia, purchases the condoms specifically from providers and markets the following least expensive brands, Escudo and Protector, at a pack of three for 20 pesos (about $0.57 USD)

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Preservativos and the Dominican Republic Why does the Dominican Republic have one of the most reduced rates of male condom utilize? Not because of an absence of data National studies worldwide have discovered elevated amounts of familiarity with male condoms (Gardner, et al. 1999) Low condom utilize is likely a consequence of different social and relevant elements including the way of associations, power progression, correspondence, and social convictions

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Diafragma Dominican Republic: 0.6 (%) Mexico: 0.4 Costa Rica: 0.3 Puerto Rico: 0.2 United States: 0.2 Guatemala: 0.1 El Salvador: 0.0 Honduras: 0.0 Nicaragua: 0.0

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Dispositivo Intrauterino (DIU) Mexico: 11.6 (%) Costa Rica: 6.9 Honduras: 6.6 United States: 5.1 Nicaragua: 3.4 Dominican Republic: 2.1 Guatemala: 1.9 Puerto Rico: 1.2 El Salvador: 0.8

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Surgical Methods Tubal ligation (la ligadura de trompas) or impediment for ladies Vasectomy (vasectomía) for men Permanent

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La Ligadura de Trompas Dominican Republic: 47.4 (%) Puerto Rico: 38.5 El Salvador: 32.1 Mexico: 27.3 Nicaragua: 24.3 United States: 23.6 Costa Rica: 21.4 Honduras: 21.2 Guatemala: 16.8

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Sterilization Regret rate taking after sanitization in the Dominican Republic was around 17% (contrasted with 7% in U.S.) According to PC 1996 review, considerable extents of disinfected ladies in DR were more youthful than 30, had three or less living kids, and had the operation before they had utilized some other technique for contraception Sterilization in Dominican Republic dispersed similarly over every single financial level (Loaiza, 1995) Not class issue

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Vasectomía United States: 12.5 (%) Puerto Rico: 5.3 Guatemala: 1.0 Mexico: 0.6 Costa Rica: 0.5 Nicaragua: 0.4 El Salvador: 0.3 Honduras: 0.3 Dominican Republic: 0.0

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Latino Gender Roles Machismo Having a curiously high or misrepresented feeling of manliness Attitude that hostility, quality, sexual ability, power and control is the measure of somebody\'s masculinity Marianismo Subservient, chas

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