End of Life Care: A Review.


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Location issues encompassing end-of-life consideration and defenseless more seasoned grown-ups ... Palliative care likewise envelops a wide domain of indication administration, and additionally ...
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End of Life Care: An Overview

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Objectives Address issues encompassing end-of-life consideration and powerless more seasoned grown-ups - meaning of palliative consideration -logistics of end-of life-consideration -surrogate basic leadership and development mandates -side effect administration ACOVE markers and EOL care

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WHAT IS PALLIATIVE CARE? Interdisciplinary Goal : to avert and reduce enduring help towards the most ideal personal satisfaction improve capacity help with basic leadership for patients with genuine ailment and their families. Can be the primary center of consideration or offered simultaneously with all other life - dragging out restorative treatment.

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END-OF-LIFE DEMOGRAPHICS The dominant part of passings happen in elderly grown-ups Very sick patients may invest quite a bit of their last energy at home, yet… Hospitals or nursing homes are real area of most passings There is provincial/geographic variability in area of passings (home versus organization) Adapted from Geriatrics Review Syllabus, Sixth Edition

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END-OF-LIFE (EOL) IN THE U.S. For elderly, demise is ordinarily moderate and connected with unending malady Patients experience expanded reliance in their consideration needs EOL consideration can be confounded by family stretch, poor side effect control, and intermittence of consideration In this time of innovation, regularly choices should be made about the utilization of these operators Adapted from Geriatrics Review Syllabus, Sixth Edition

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SUDDEN DEATH, UNEXPECTED CAUSE < 10%, MI, mishap, and so on. Wellbeing Status Death Time

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Steady Decline Short "Terminal Phase"

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SLOW DECLINE Periodic Crises, Sudden Death

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Curative/Life Prolonging Presentation Death Sx Control/Palliative Care Adapted from Institute of Medicine Historical directions of consideration pathways

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Consider an option direction… Inclusion of palliative ideas from time of conclusion This bit of the consideration arrangement may turn out to be more conspicuous as remedial treatments are less accessible More progressive moves toward the end of life

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Curative/Remissive Therapy Death Presentation Hospice Palliative Care Adapted from EPEC educational modules, 1999

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WHAT IS "HOSPICE"? Area Place for the consideration of passing on patients Group Organization that gives consideration to the withering patient Approach to care Philosophy of tend to the diminishing patient A Medicare advantage Adapted from Geriatrics Review Syllabus, Sixth Edition

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THE HOSPICE MEDICARE BENEFIT For recipients with a normal visualization of 6 months or less Exchange remedial medicines for symptomatic/palliative medications Can be repudiated whenever Reimbursed routine set of expenses for one of four levels of consideration Can be used in the home, nursing home, inpatient hospice units See referenced perusing, AAHPM Bulletin

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THE HOSPICE MEDICARE BENEFIT Covered Services doctor administrations, nursing care therapeutic gear and supplies pharmaceuticals identified with the terminal ailment assigned fleeting inpatient care (side effect administration & reprieve) PT or OT taking into account the objectives deprivation administrations home-wellbeing assistant administrations

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OBSTACLES Limited access, i.e. provincial territories Logistical bolster Late referral – middle length time went through with hospice is just 21 days (Hospice Association of America 2006) Difficulties in deciding forecast

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PROGNOSIS More clear for tumor analysis Often flighty for interminable illness COPD Alzheimer\'s Disease Heart infection Failure to Thrive/Debility

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PROGNOSIS by and large: Patient\'s condition is life constraining, and pt/family know Pt/family have chosen help of sx treatment objectives instead of corrective objectives Pt has either reported clinical movement of ailment or archived late impeded wholesome status identified with the terminal procedure

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Karnofsky Scale

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DELIVERING BAD NEWS Prepare Plan a motivation Ensure accessibility of every single medicinal truth Pick a fitting setting Minimize interferences What does the patient get it? What does the patient need to know? Convey the news Be clear, dodging therapeutic language Provide a "notice shot" Allow time for examination Create an arrangement and sort out for development

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DECISION MAKING Autonomous decisions are intentional, sufficiently educated and in view of thinking Does the patient can pick? Does the patient comprehend apropos data? Does the patient welcome the clinical circumstance/decisions/outcomes? Will the patient reason through decisions?

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The patient distinguishes the goal(s). The arrangement takes after the objective.

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SURROGATE DECISION MAKING May be required with both more youthful and more established grown-ups Specific surrogate might be recognized by means of a DPOA (tough force of lawyer) for social insurance Goal of surrogate is to advocate for patient in light of what they know of patient\'s desires -in light of earlier exchanges, advance mandates/living wills

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SOME DEFINITIONS Durable Power of Attorney for Health Care Appointing somebody to settle on restorative choices for you on the off chance that you can\'t make them yourself Does not require nearness of AD or living will Living Will Description of wishes about existence maintaining medicinal medications on the off chance that one is at death\'s door Advance orders Instructions/direction for human services if one get to be weakened Can name a "specialist" to settle on choices for them Wishes expressed must be regarded by surrogate unless court arranges generally Can be repudiated whenever Adapted from University of New Mexico SoM

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DECISION MAKING If a patient can\'t settle on their therapeutic choice and has not distinguished a surrogate leader, does not have a development order, or has not made their desires known, a surrogate may must be recognized. A few states have a programmed request of need for recognizing surrogates Kansas and Missouri have no such statues accessible

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OTHER PALLIATIVE CARE ISSUES Symptom administration Cross-social issues Spiritual concerns Psychosocial issues See suggested readings for additional data

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SYMPTOM MANAGEMENT Multiple side effects of worry close to the end of life -Pain -Dyspnea -Constipation -Nausea -Anxiety -Delirium -Fatigue -Anorexia

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PAIN Treatment taking into account evaluation -seriousness -nociceptive versus neuropathic -step-wise methodology Potential modalities -Non-opioid acetominophen NSAIDs/COX-2 –I -Opioid -Adjunctive Anti-convulsants Steroids TCAs

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And now somewhat about opioids… Bind to one or a greater amount of the sedative receptors (mu, kappa, delta) Mu receptor is 7 transmembrance G protein coupled receptor -restricting settles the layer so neuron doesn\'t fire Where are the mu receptors? - outskirts, dorsal root ganglia of spinal line, periaqueductal dim of brainstem, midbrain, gut

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Opioids "feeble" opioids -codeine -hydrocodone -oxycodone "solid" opioids -hydromorphone -fentanyl -morphine

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Opioids Distribution Hydrophilic * morphine, oxycodone, hydromorphone Lipophilic * fentanyl, methadone

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Opioids IV-morphine, hydromorphone, fentanyl PO-morphine (LA & SA), oxycodone (LA & SA), hydromorphone, methadone, fentanyl, hydrocodone Transdermal-fentanyl Initial choices in light of - course of organization -requirement for nonstop versus irregular dosing -seriousness of torment LA= long acting SA= short acting

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Opioids-Pharmacology All water dissolvable opioids act comparably: Cmax is 60-a hour and a half after PO dosage 30 minutes after SQ or IM 6-10 minutes after IV measurements All are conjugated in liver and 90% discharged through the kidney With typical renal fx, all have ½ life of 3-4 hours, achieve consistent state in 4-5 ½ lives

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Special Notes Morphine - low protein restricting -dialyzes off -dynamic metabolite is morphine 6-glucuronide (10%) * amasses in renal disappointment and causes neuroexcitation * delayed CNS impacts

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Special Notes Fentanyl - next to zero dynamic metabolites -Not dialyzable -Elderly more touchy to impacts -Unclear how TD course is influenced by low subcutaneous fat Hydromorphone - Generally considered to have inert metabolites -Drug of decision with renal disappointment

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Special Notes Methadone ties mu and squares NMDA receptors very protein bound exceedingly variable and delayed half life Phase I digestion system and may draw out the QT interim alert when transforming from another opioid to methadone

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Potential opioid reactions Nausea CNS gloom/sedation Pruritis Constipation Delirium Endocrine brokenness with long haul use

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DYSPNEA Subjective side effect Pathophysiology can reflect jumble in direction or demonstration of breathing Treatment coordinated at basic cause -Most normal reversible causes bronchospasm, hypoxia, iron deficiency - Both non-pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic medications can be useful -Opioids utilized for sx alleviation when more coordinated treatment doesn\'t switch the dypsnea

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NAUSEA Potentially weakening side effects close to the end of life Treatment taking into account source -Brain chemoreceptor trigger zone, cerebral cortex, vestibular mechanical assembly - GI tract block, motility, mucosal bothering

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www,aafp.org, Sept.1, 2001, Vol.64, No.5

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DELIRIUM Common close to the end of life -geriatric patients with numerous danger elements for improvement Large number of cases can be reversible Control of ridiculousness might be critical for both patient and family -pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic means

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ACOVE Indicators Assessing Care of Vulnerable Elders Comprehensive arrangement of value appraisal instruments for sick more established grown-ups -Covering areas of anticipation, conclusion, treatment, and follow up Designed to assess