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Climate Change Basics.


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Climate Change Basics AP Environmental Science January 2009 Energy from the sun in many wavelengths Sun High energy, short wavelength Low energy, long wavelength Nonionizing radiation Ionizing radiation Cosmic rays Gamma rays X rays Far ultraviolet waves Near ultraviolet
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Environmental Change Basics AP Environmental Science January 2009

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Energy from the sun in numerous wavelengths Sun High vitality, short wavelength Low vitality, long wavelength Nonionizing radiation Ionizing radiation Cosmic beams Gamma beams X beams Far bright waves Near bright waves Visiblewaves Near infrared waves Far infrared waves Microwaves TV waves Radio waves 10 - 14 10 - 12 10 - 8 10 - 7 10 - 6 10 - 5 10 - 3 10 - 2 10 - 1 Wavelength in meters (not proportional)

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Figure 3-10 Page 45 15 10 Energy discharged from sun (Kcal/cm 2/min) Energy from the sun Visible 5 Infrared Ultraviolet 0 0.25 1 2 2.5 3 Wavelength (micrometers)

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Energy parity

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Energy moves from equator to shafts

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Figure 21-2a Page 463 Average temperature over recent years 17 16 15 14 Average surface temperature (°C) 13 12 11 10 9 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 Present Thousands of years prior Milankovitch cycles

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Figure 21-2b Page 463 Agriculture set up Average temperature over recent years = 15°C (59°F) Temperature change over recent years 2 1 0 - 1 End of last ice age Temperature change (°C) - 2 - 3 - 4 What is normal? - 5 20,000 10,000 2,000 1,000 200 100 Now Years back

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From the Long Summer.

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From the Long Summer Impact of beaver hide exchange on atmosphere?

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Figure 21-2c Page 463 1.0 Little ice age - the latest noteworthy RCCE 0.5 0.0 Temperature change (°C) - 0.5 - 1.0 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2101 Year Temperature change over recent years

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http://epa.gov/climatechange/science/pastcc.html

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Figure 21-2d Page 463 Average temperature over recent years 15.0 14.8 14.6 14.4 Average surface temperature (°C) 14.2 14.0 13.8 13.6 1860 1880 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000 2020 Year

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Physical and Biological pointers of environmental change.

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Sources of tables for an Earth-wide temperature boost possibilities http://cdiac.ornl.gov/pns/current_ghg.html http://www.globalchange.umich.edu/globalchange1/flow/addresses/samson/global_warming_potential/

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Table 21-1 Page 464 Table 21-1 Major Greenhouse Gasses from Human Activities Greenhouse Gas Carbon dioxide (CO2) Methane (CH4) Nitrous oxide (N2O) Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)* Hydrochloro-fluorocarbons (HCFCs) Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) Halons Carbon tetrachloride Human Sources Fossil fuel copying, particularly coal (70–75%), deforestation, and plant copying Rice paddies, guts of steers and termites, landfills, coal creation, coal creases, and normal gas spills from oil and gas generation and pipelines Fossil fuel copying, composts, domesticated animals squanders, and nylon generation Air conditioners, fridges, plastic froths Air conditioners, iceboxes, plastic froths Air conditioners, coolers, plastic froths Fire quenchers Cleaning dissolvable Average Time in the Troposphere 100–120 years 12–18 years 114–120 years 11–20 years (65–110 years in stratosphere) 9–390 15–390 65 42 Relative Warming Potential (contrasted with CO 2 ) 1 23 296 900–8,300 470–2,000 130–12,700 5,500 1,400

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Sources of GHGs 1970 - 2004

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Natural versus Anthropogenic

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Figure 21-4 Page 465 380 360 340 320 300 Concentration of carbon dioxide in the air (ppm) 280 Carbon dioxide 260 240 +2.5 220 0 200 Variation of temperature (˚C) from current level –2.5 180 –5.0 –7.5 Temperature change –10.0 End of last ice age 160 120 80 40 0 Thousands of years before present

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http://cdiac.ornl.gov/pns/representation/c_cycle.htm

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Concentrations of vital anthropogenic nursery gasses in the modern time [Hansen et al., 1998; Hansen and Sato, 1999]. Dark bends mean estimations of in situ climatic examples gathered as of late [NOAA, 1999a, b, c; Houghton et al., 1995]. Focuses mean fixations decided from air pockets caught in polar ice sheets utilizing ice centers got as a part of Antarctica (blue) or Greenland (yellow); red bends signify fits to these focuses [Etheridge et al., 1996, 1998; Machida et al., 1995]. Information for CFCs are from in situ tests subsequent to 1977 [NOAA, 1999d]. Blending proportions of CFC-11 and CFC-12 before the first in situ air estimations were evaluated from mechanical creation information and expected climatic lifetimes of 50 and 100 years, individually [AFEAS, 1993; Hansen et al., 1998; Hansen and Sato, 1999]. http://www.agu.org/eos_elec/99148e.html

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Carbon dioxide fixation (top), intermediary temperature (center), and methane focus from examinations of ice centers from Vostok, Antarctica [Jouzel et al., 1993] http://www.agu.org/eos_elec/99148e.html

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http://epa.gov/climatechange/science/pastcc.html

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The significance of Albedo and tipping focuses. Figure 21-6 Page 467

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Figure 21-7 Page 468 Clouds 50–55% Snow 80–90% City 10–15% Forest 5% Albedo from different surfaces Grass 15–25% Bare sand 30–60% Oceans 5%

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Figure 21-12 Page 472 Greenland Antarctica hot planet limited consolidation

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Troposphere Cooling from expansion CO 2 evacuation by plants and soil creatures CO 2 outflows from area cleaning, flames, and rot Warming from lessening Aerosols Heat and CO 2 evacuation Heat and CO 2 emanations Greenhouse gasses Ice and snow spread Shallow sea Land and soil biotoa Long-term stockpiling Natural and human discharges Deep sea Figure 21-9 Page 470

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Figure 21-10 Page 471 Cell Clouds Land Ocean Modeling of air procedures is in 3 measurements

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Predicted temperature changes are emotional!

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Agriculture Water Resources Forests Figure 21-13 Page 475 Changes in water supply Decreased water quality Increased dry spell Increased flooding Snowpack lessening Melting of peak icy masses Changes in woodland sythesis and areas Disappearance of a few backwoods, particularly ones at high rises Increased flames from drying Loss of natural life living space and species Shifts in nourishment developing zones Changes in product yields Increased watering system requests Increased nuisances, crop sicknesses, and weeds in hotter regions Biodiversity Sea Level and Coastal Areas Rising ocean levels Flooding of low-lying islands and waterfront urban communities Flooding of seaside estuaries, wetlands, and coral reefs Beach disintegration Disruption of waterfront fisheries Contamination of seaside aquifiers with salt water Extinction of some plant and creature species Loss of territories Disruption of amphibian life Weather Extremes Human Health Decreased passings from cool climate Increased passings from warmth and malady Disruption of sustenance and water supplies Spread of tropical illnesses to mild regions Increased respiratory infection and dust hypersensitivities Increased water contamination from waterfront flooding Increased arrangement of photochemical brown haze Human Population Prolonged warmth waves and dry spells Increased flooding from more continuous, serious, and overwhelming precipitation in a few zones Increased passings from warmth and disturbance of nourishment supplies More ecological outcasts Increased movement

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Spreading ailment Coral reef blanching Heat waves and times of strangely warm climate Downpours, substantial snowfalls, and flooding Glaciers liquefying Earlier spring landing Plant and creature extent movements and populace decays Sea level ascent and waterfront flooding Arctic and Antarctic warming Droughts and flames GLOBAL WARMING: Early Warning Signs http://www.climatehotmap.org/Fingerprints and Harbingers

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atmosphere hot guide

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Glaciers in Glacier National Park are relied upon to vanish in our lifetimes.

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Golden amphibians have vanished from the Monteverde Cloud woodland.

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Present extent Future reach Overlap Figure 21-15 Page 476

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Speciation changes because of warming are getting to be evident.

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Figure 21-8 Page 468 Last warm period Today’s ocean level 0 Height above or underneath present ocean level (feet) Height above or beneath present ocean level (meters) –130 –426 250,000 200,000 150,000 100,000 50,000 0 Years before Present

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100 90 80 70 High Projection Shanghai, New Orleans, and other low-lying urban areas generally submerged 60 Mean Sea-Level Rises (centimeters) 50 40 30 Medium Projection More than 33% of U.S. wetlands submerged 20 10 Low Projection 0 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050 2060 2070 2080 2090 2100 Figure 21-16 Page 477 Year

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Figure 21-14 Page 475 • Less extreme winters • More precipitation in some dry zones • Less precipitation in some wet zones • Increased sustenance creation in a few territories • Expanded populace and reach for some plant and creature species adjusted to higher temperatures

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Solutions Global Warming Prevention Cleanup Cut fossil fuel use (particularly coal) Remove CO 2 from smokestack and vehicle outflows Shift from coal to regular gas Store (sequester) CO 2 by planting trees Improve vitality productivity Shift to renewable vitality assets Sequester CO 2 profound underground Transfer vitality effectiveness and renewable vitality advances to using so as to create nations Sequester CO 2 in soil no-till development and taking yield area out of generation Reduce deforestation Sequester CO 2 in the profound sea Use more economical farming Repair broken characteristic gas pipelines and offices Limit urban sprawl Reduce neediness Use encourages that lessen CH 4 discharges by burping cows Slow populace development Figure 21-17 Page 479

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Figure 21-18 Page 480 Coal force plant Tanker conveys CO 2 from plant to apparatus Oil appara