Basic concepts of greek philosophy
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Basic concepts of Greek philosophy.


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Basic concepts of Greek philosophy. Physis (nature) and zoe (life) Psyche (soul) and nous (mind) Taxis (order) and kosmos (world) To on (being), ousia (essence) and genesis (becoming). Anthropos (man) Techne (art) Polis (city-state)
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Slide 1

Fundamental ideas of Greek theory Physis (nature) and zoe (life) Psyche (soul) and nous (brain) Taxis (request) and kosmos (world) To on (being), ousia (embodiment) and genesis (getting to be) Anthropos (man) Techne (workmanship) Polis (city-state) Arete (prudence) and Eudaimonia (prosperity, joy) Logos (discourse/reason)

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Nature and Life Nature/physis = first idea of Greek logic Known by science ( episteme ) Nature = One material world Form/laws and examples of being Reality Life/zoe = self-moving self-duplicating reality Life = Basic type of nature Goal-coordinated Individual and a Whole's piece

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Nature ( physis ) presents itself as rising reality, one material world in which human persons are installed, one baffling entire that may have no all-encompassing significance, or one that may never be known by man…

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Soul and Mind Soul/mind = standard of self-development and awareness Body and Soul = Separate substances ? (dualism) Different parts of zoon , living being ? (functionalism) Soul = branch of, subject to body ? (investigative realism) Mind/nous = rule of scholarly life and of information Mind or Reason = works on sense-experience? (empiricists) OR organized by intrinsic ideas ? (Platonists) coordinated toward its own end = truth ? (Socratics) OR instrument of wishes (Sophists)

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Question about “ Person ” Greeks don't have the idea “person” as being what is indicated, yet have Concept of discerning organization, obligation Concept of first individual point of view, hesitance Is the individual = the spirit? Soul + body? Platonists: individual = epitomized undying soul Aristotelians: individual = encapsulated mortal soul

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Soul ( Psyche ) Note the wings: the Greek mind additionally implied ‘butterfly.’ Psyche, conceived mortal, was cherished by Eros. After she plunged into Hades, Zeus made her everlasting.

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Order and World Order/taxis = scientific structure Basic example of sanity Mathematical, e.g. numerical or geometrical premise Inherent in some physical things, e.g. musical concordance World/kosmos = systematic structure of the universe Rational request, comprehensible by man Wholistic structure of magnificence and quality ( kosmos ) Evidence of amicability and perhaps of Divine Mind ?

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Cosmos The “fixed stars” pivot around the geocenter, where natural earth accumulated, then water, air and flame. Sun, moon and planets circle in different circles. Earth and Man are in the inside, God at as far as possible, moving it all…

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Being, Essence, Becoming Being = ‘what is’ additionally and particularly ‘what is persevering/permanent’ Essence = center of ‘being’, what makes a thing what it is Becoming = wonders of progress, change, including qualities and appearing and going-out-of presence Q: Is there a “essential structure” of being, or is reality = constantly evolving, steadily getting to be?

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Concepts of Human-Being Man (anthropos) = individual, focal point of Greek kosmos Art ( techne ) = human imagination, wellspring of continuing human world, division in the middle of man and nature City-State ( polis ) = focus of human world, seat of law and phase of activity Virtue ( arete ) and Happiness ( eudaimonia ) = standards of Greek morals Logos (dialect, reason) = type of human personality, experience, correspondence

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Logos = a given dialect OR discourse OR reason = the clear significance of things Logos = that through which experience is known by people Logos outlines all things, however it is feasible for individuals to end up mindful of that calculated structure, and its restrictions “Men think there are numerous logoi , yet as a general rule ( physis ) there is just one.” –Heraclitus “In the starting was the Logos .” - John

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Man “Man is the measure for goodness' sake, both of the things that are and how they are, and of the things that are not and how they are not.” –Protagoras “Man is the discerning political creature ( zoon politikos echein logon ).” - - Aristotle

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Techne Creates the persevering universe of human ancient rarities, including Temples, warships, homes, landmarks Works of craftsmanship and music and verse Laws and new types of government Implies a decent to be accomplished, and information of how to accomplish it Divides nature into human versus non-human Q: Is there a ‘art’ of living? Then again is living astutely a something past ‘craft’ and ‘technique’?

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Polis = enlightened group, focus of government including military life Greek city-state = phase of political life, spot to win persisting “name/identity” Linked to majority rules system, demos (the People), and also law Contrast to oikos , private universe of family Praises the “life of action,” native as opposed to the “life of the mind,” rationalist

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Arete and Eudaimonia Virtue/fabulousness ( arete ) = key moral qualities Courage ( andreia ) Self-restriction/balance ( sophrosyne ) Justice/exemplary nature ( dikaiosyne ) Wisdom/reasonability ( phronesis ) Well-being or bliss ( eudaimonia ) = ‘process-goal’ of human life (what everybody tries to have and be) Q: Is satisfaction found in having, doing or being? In family or popularity, riches or information?

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Two Perspectives Theory (information) Views everything ‘objectively’ Often  e xplanation of ‘underlying’ reasons Q: Highest hypothesis = science or logic? Practice (activity) Views things with respect to human intrigues Often  understanding as far as objectives, qualities Q: Best lifestyle = dynamic or thoughtful?

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Dialog Philosophers at the Academy. What did they talk about? The ideas of nature, life, so