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Foundations of Special Education.


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Foundations of Special Education. Dr. Thomas G. Ryan 2004. What is Special Education?. Special Education: S pecially designed instruction to meet the unique needs and abilities of exceptional students. Special Education is relatively new.
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Establishments of Special Education Dr. Thomas G. Ryan 2004

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What is Special Education? Custom curriculum: S pecially outlined guideline to meet the one of a kind needs and capacities of uncommon understudies. Specialized curriculum is moderately new. Verifiably, individuals with handicaps were frequently put in healing facilities, shelters, or different establishments that gave little, assuming any, instruction.

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For occasion, Ancient Greece Physicians Hippocrates Mental Disorders Mania Melancholia Phrenitis Hysteria

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Ancient Greece - Praxis Physicians Balance of Humors Black bile = Melancholia Yellow bile = nerves Blood = mind-set swings Phlegm = ? Treatment rub/diet/exercise

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Greece Philosophers – Apply learning Socrates "Know thyself" Epistemology Revelation – knowledge, instinct Rationalism – rationale, if x then y Empiricism – study of calculation

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Socrates – Teacher/Philosopher

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Greek Philosophers Socrates "Know thyself" Treatment = Knowledge Reason to comprehend Plato - "Forms" - Emotions Knowledge (reason) Treatment = Education/Insight of mind or psyche (Socratic strategy) "Sophronesterim" (place of balance)

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Philosophers & History Aristotle - "Empiricism" Hot bile = suicide and sexual drive Rise of the Roman Empire - Social Greek decay ( "Post Aristotle" ) Epicurus Cynics Skepticism Stoicism – no feeling Disability – not capable Cicero Galen

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3 rd to the 17 th Century "Dark Ages" - Germanic tribes bring destruction of roman realm Middle Ages - Renaissance and Reformation – Rebirth High Middle Ages - Bonadventure (1221-1274) Soul and body unmistakable Soul w/body knows outside world Soul additionally knows otherworldly world Aquinas (1225-1275)

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High Middle Ages Roger Bacon (1214-1292) Bartholomaeus Angelicus (1275) "Madness is contamination of the preeminent cell of the head... despairing is the contamination of the center cell of the head...in the starting the patient's head be shaven, and washed in tepid vinegar, and that he be kept or bound in a dim spot... assorted states of countenances and similarity of painting should not be shewed tofore him...he might be let of blood in a vain in the temple, and seeped as much as will fill an egg-shell... with treatments and balming men should work to bring him asleep...the head that is shaven might be put with lungs of swine... on the other hand of a sheep...if the woodeness [wildness] dureth three days without rest, there is no trust of recovery." {Book VII, De Proprietatibus Rerum}

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Bacon, Roger (1214?- 1294), English Scholastic logician and researcher, a standout amongst the most compelling instructors of the thirteenth century Teacher/Philosopher

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Reformation Treatment - First haven in Spain 1408/9 Valencia Moving into the investigative upheaval 1533 Montaigne - 1600 Gilbert distributes de Magnate - 1609 Galileo 1610 Alonso Salagner = witch trials without torment 1616 Harvey and blood course mid late 1600's bandit smoldering of witches

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Jean Marc Gaspard French doctor and instructor Jean Marc Gaspard Itard was one of the soonest educators to contend that uncommon showing strategies could be viable in teaching impaired kids. In 1801 Itard found a young man wandering wild in the forested areas of France. Somewhere around 1801 and 1805 Itard utilized deliberate methods to instruct the kid, named Victor, how to speak with others and how to perform every day living abilities, for example, dressing himself.

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Edouard Séguin In 1848 French analyst Edouard Séguin, who had concentrated on with Itard, moved to the United States and built up a few persuasive rules for instructing kids with unique needs. Séguin's instruction programs focused on the significance of creating autonomy and confidence in incapacitated understudies by giving them a blend of physical and scholarly assignments.

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In 1816 American clergyman and instructor Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet built up the primary government funded school for hard of hearing understudies in the United States. 1816

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1829 The main school for visually impaired understudies in the United States was established in 1829 in Boston by American doctor John Dix Fisher. The school is referred to today as Perkins School for the Blind and is situated in Watertown, Massachusetts. Specialized curriculum classes inside consistent school programs started toward the start of the twentieth century.

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Canadian teacher instrumental in building up general free instruction in Canada. The government funded educational system of Ontario was set up on the premise of Ryerson's Report (1846), which he distributed in the wake of concentrating on the British and Continental educational systems. By 1871 the objective of general free instruction had been come to in Upper Canada (Ontario). Ryerson, Adolphus Egerton (1803-1882),

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Helen Keller – A. Graham Bell In 1882, an infant young lady got a fever that was so savage she about kicked the bucket. She survived, however the fever left its imprint. She could no more see or listen. Helen Keller was conceived on June 27, 1880 in Alabama, the girl of a daily paper proofreader. There has never been an exact finding of the sort and reason for the fever that struck Helen (Royal National Institute for the visually impaired, 1995). The Kellers looked for exhortation and solutions for Helen. As she drew closer the age of 7, they went to Alexander Graham Bell in Washington, DC. A lobbyist in hard of hearing training, Bell prescribed they send Helen to the Perkins School for the Blind in Boston. A late graduate of the school, Anne Sullivan, otherwise called Annie, was offered to mentor Helen. In March 1887, Annie touched base in Tuscumbia, Alabama to live with the Kellers as tutor – she graduated!

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Hellen Keller

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Radcliffe did not need her! While still at Radcliffe College, Helen started her written work vocation which proceeded for a long time. Helen turned out to be an exceptional researcher. She had marvelous memory and additionally modest determination to succeed. While she was still at school she composed "The Story of my Life" which was a quick achievement ("Tragedy to Triumph," no date). She went ahead to compose 11 different books and various articles on visual impairment, deafness, social issues and ladies' rights. She graduated cum laude in 1904.

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http://www.graceproducts.com/keller/life.html In 1921, the American Foundation for the Blind (AFB) was sorted out. Helen was welcome to be representative for the association. She voyaged broadly giving addresses and raising assets for the visually impaired (R.N.I B, 2001). She turned into a suffragette and a communist, requesting square with rights for ladies and common laborers individuals. Helen Keller lived on into retirement. She frequently strolled the grounds of Arcan Ridge and could be seen conversing with herself with her fingers (R.N.I.B, 2001). She kicked the bucket toward the evening of June 1, 1968, just before her 88th birthday.

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Progressive Movement in Education – 1920's Many would call the decade of the American 1920s the decade of the Progressive Movement in Education. Dynamic instruction upheld an experiential reasoning; a training got more from the understudy than from the educator. It was an understudy driven, understudy focused idea of instruction that endeavored to cultivate the unstable harmony amongst independence and community. It was a great and hopeful analysis, to be sure. Driving this pedagogical raid was the unassuming, bespectacled previous teacher, John Dewey. It might be contended that Dewey without any assistance moved thoughts of dynamic training into the instructive front line regularly with both feedback and negativity.

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John Dewey – Philosopher/Teacher

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Skinner - Behavior Burrhus Frederick ("Fred") Skinner was conceived on March 20, 1904 in Susquehanna, Pennsylvania. He finished his college degree in English at Hamilton College in Clinton, New York. Upon graduation Fred endeavored to compose a novel with little achievement and chose to seek after studies in Psychology where he was acquainted with Watson's book Behaviorism and got himself captivated with an experimental, exploratory methodology. In the wake of perusing Bertrand Russell's book Philosophy (1927) with his references to mentalistic terms in behavioristic ways, Skinner alluded to himself turning into a "moment behaviorist" (Skinner, 1988). In his readings he likewise got to be keen on the work of the Russian Physiologist Ivan Pavlov who was contemplating molded reflexes at the time.

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B.F. Skinner - Behaviorist

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APA recompense - Skinner At the American Psychological Association (APA) yearly gathering in August, 1990 he got an uncommon grant of "Reference for Outstanding Lifetime Contribution to Psychology". He kicked the bucket a couple days after the fact at 86 years old on August 18, 1990.

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Universal Declaration of Human Rights - 1948 On December 10, 1948, the global group embraced the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which perceived the basic characteristic pride and equivalent and natural privileges surprisingly around the globe. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights was set up under the chairmanship of previous U.S. To start with Lady Eleanor Roosevelt. The report was passed consistently by the UN General Assembly in December 1948.

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Article 26 – 1948 – U.N. Everybody has the privilege to training. Training should be free, at any rate in the basic and crucial stages. Basic instruction should be obligatory. Specialized and proficient training might be made for the most part accessible and advanced education should be similarly open to all on the premise of legitimacy. Training might be coordinated to the full advancement of the human identity and to the reinforcing of admiration for human rights and key flexibilities. It should advance comprehension, resilience and kinship amon