Establishments of Comparative Politics .

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FACT FILES. Foundations of Comparative Politics. by Kenneth Newton and Jan van Deth All slides © Kenneth Newton and Jan van Deth 2005. Summary. Fact file 1.1 The Treaty of Westphalia (1648) Fact file 2.1 The Freedom House rating of states Fact file 2.1 continued Fact file 3.1 Constitutions
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Certainty FILES Foundations of Comparative Politics by Kenneth Newton and Jan van Deth All slides © Kenneth Newton and Jan van Deth 2005

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Summary Fact record 1.1 The Treaty of Westphalia (1648) Fact document 2.1 The Freedom House rating of states Fact record 2.1 proceeded with Fact document 3.1 Constitutions Fact document 3.2 Heads of state and heads of government Fact document 3.2 proceeded with Fact record 3.3 Legislatures Fact document 3.3 proceeded with Fact document 3.4 Judiciaries Fact record 4.1Presidential and parliamentary frameworks Fact record 4.1 proceeded with Fact document 4.2 Semi-presidentialism Fact document 5.1 Confederations Fact document 5.2 Federal states Fact document 5.3 Unitary states Fact document 5.4 Sub-focal government: examples of progress Fact record 5.4 proceeded with Fact record 5.4 proceeded with Fact record 5.4 proceeded with Fact document 7.1 Public administrations

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Summary (cont.) Fact record 7.1 proceeded with Fact document 8.1 Political mentalities and qualities Fact record 8.1 proceeded with Fact document 8.2 Political conduct Fact record 8.2 proceeded with Fact document 9.1 Pressure bunches Fact record 9.1continued Fact record 10.1 Public administration and business sector media Fact record 10.1 proceeded with Fact document 11.1 Voters and races Fact record 11.1 proceeded with Fact record 11.1 proceeded with Fact document 11.1 proceeded with Fact record 11.1 proceeded with Fact record 12.1 Party frameworks, government arrangement, coalitions and appointive frameworks Fact document 12.1 proceeded with

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Fact record 1.1 The Treaty of Westphalia (1648) The first many years of the seventeenth century were portrayed by a progression of wars between Spain, France, Sweden, Bavaria, The Netherlands, Denmark and nations in focal Europe, known as the Thirty Years War (1618–48). It devastated around 2,000 châteaux, 1,600 urban communities and more than 18,000 towns crosswise over Europe. The number of inhabitants in the war-torn range declined around 50 for every penny in provincial territories, and up to 30 for each penny in urban districts. This changed the monetary, demographic and political scene in Europe significantly and in the long run prompted a settlement that, essentially, made the state arrangement of the present day world. In a circumstance of constant wars and clashes, it gradually turned out to be clear that an answer could be founded on a \'bundle bargain\' between various sides. In 1648, delegates from the warring groups met in the urban areas of Osnabruck and Munster in Westphalia to arrange a comprehensive peace bargain. The last arrangement of understandings is known as the Treaty of Westphalia or the Peace of

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Fact record 1.1 proceeded with Westphalia . It had vital results for the division of force – and in this way for the advancement of states – in Europe. The understandings perceived the privileges of states and their power, settled the religious question in Europe and gave answers for various regional cases. Most essential, the Treaty set up an arrangement of states, and of conciliatory relations between them, that has kept going pretty much in place until the present day. page 12

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Fact document 2.1 The Freedom House rating of states Freedom in the World is an institutional exertion by Freedom House to screen the advancement and decay of political rights and common freedoms in 192 countries and in major related and questioned regions . . . The Survey evaluates a nation\'s opportunity by analyzing its record in two ranges: political rights and common freedoms. A nation concedes its nationals political rights when it grants them to frame political gatherings that speak to a critical scope of voter decision and whose pioneers can transparently go after and be chosen to positions of force in government. A nation maintains its natives\' polite freedoms when it regards and secures their religious, ethnic, financial, etymological and different rights, including sexual orientation and family rights, individual opportunities and flexibilities of the press, conviction and affiliation. The Survey rates every nation on a seven-point scale for both political rights and common freedoms (1 speaking to the most free and 7 the minimum free) and afterward isolates the world into three general classes: "Free" (nations whose appraisals normal 1–3); \'Incompletely Free\' (nations whose evaluations normal 3–5.5); and \'Not Free\' (nations whose appraisals normal 5.5–7). The evaluations are not just appraisals of the behavior of

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Fact document 2.1 proceeded with of governments. They additionally mirror the truth of day by day life. Accordingly a nation with a considerate government confronting savage powers (for instance fear monger developments or rebellions) unfriendly to an open society will be evaluated on the premise of the on-the-ground conditions that figure out if the populace can practice its opportunities. ( Freedom in the World 2002: The Democracy Gap , The Freedom House Survey Team; ) page 26

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Fact record 3.1 Constitutions The initially arranged constitution was San Marino\'s (1600), trailed by Canada\'s (1774) and the USA\'s (1787). From that point forward, there have been three rushes of constitution making, connected to the "waves" of state building talked about in part 2: after 1945, when numerous African and Asian states picked up freedom from their pioneer powers; in the 1970s and 1980s, in Latin America, Africa and Asia when tyrant types of government fallen; and after 1990, in focal and eastern Europe when the post-comrade countries occupied with another burst of constitution making. Somewhere around 1990 and 1995 ninety-six nations – more than 33% of the world\'s aggregate – received new constitutions. Twenty were in focal and eastern Europe, yet thirty-one were in focal and southern Africa. Most nations have changed their constitutions sooner or later in their history, however Belgium, Canada, France (twice), The Netherlands, New Zealand, Sweden and Turkey have done as such in real courses in late decades. The Indian constitution has been revised more than seventy times since 1950, however the American has been corrected just twenty-seven times since 1787, and ten of these were contained in the Bill of Rights of 1791. France has had seventeen constitutions since 1789. Around 70 for every penny of constitutions go back no more remote than 1945. page 43

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Fact record 3.2 Heads of state and heads of government ■ Heads of state In presidential frameworks, the straightforwardly chose president is both head of state and head of government. In parliamentary frameworks, the head of state is a generally stylized capacity completed either by a ruler or a president, while the head of government, a position of genuine force, is ordinarily filled by an executive or chancellor. Presidential heads of state might be chosen or delegated, yet presidential heads of government in majority rule governments are dependably specifically chosen. Shockingly, many heads of state in built up vote based systems are rulers – Belgium, Denmark, Japan, The Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden and the UK. This is on account of these nations have frequently maintained a strategic distance from unrest and adjusted gradually to law based weights, leaving their lords and rulers set up while adjusting organizations around them. Presidential heads of state, playing out a generally formal part, are found in Austria, Germany, Greece, Ireland, India, Israel and Italy.

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Fact record 3.2 proceeded with ■ Presidential heads of government Usually the president is a solitary individual, however a couple of nations (Bosnia-Herzegovina, Cyprus and Uruguay) have explored different avenues regarding joint administrations, generally unsuccessfully. There are seventy-eight presidential frameworks on the planet, making them the most widely recognized type of equitable government on the planet. Fifty-five of these are new vote based systems framed since 1990, and it stays to be perceived what number of these will stay presidential if these frameworks change. Presidential frameworks are discovered for the most part in Latin America, which has been affected by the USA, and in the new majority rules systems of focal and eastern Europe. page 46

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Fact document 3.3 Legislatures The forerunner of current parliamentary governing bodies is presumably the Althingi , the gathering set up by Viking pioneers in Iceland around a thousand years prior. Lawmaking bodies can comprise of any number of gatherings, however around seventy five percent of contemporary councils have one load (unicameral) and the rest have two (bicameral). Unicameral lawmaking bodies incorporate Denmark ( Folketing ), Finland ( Eduskunta in Finnish, Riksdagen in Swedish), Greece ( Vouli ), Israel ( Knesset ), New Zealand (House of Representatives), Portugal (The Assembly of the Republic) and Sweden ( Riksdag ). New Zealand got to be unicameral in 1950, when it abrogated its upper house. Costa Rica, Denmark and Sweden later went with the same pattern. Bicameral lawmaking bodies incorporate Canada (Senate and House of Commons are altogether known as Parliament), France (Senate and the National Assembly), Italy (Senate and the Chamber of Deputies), Japan (the House of Councilors and the House of Representatives, by and large called the Diet), The Netherlands

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Fact record 3.3 proceeded with (First and Second Chambers, all in all the States General), the UK (The House of Lords and the House of Commons make up Parliament), the USA (the Senate and the House of Representatives make up Congress). The bigger the number of inhabitants in a nation, the bigger its administrative body is prone to be. India, with a populace of more than 100 million, has a lower house (the Lok Sabha ) with 530 individuals. Brazil, with a populace of 160 million, has a Chamber of Deputies with 517 individuals. At the other extraordinary, Trinidad and Tobago, with a populace of 1.3 million, has a House of Representatives of 36 individuals, and Iceland, with a populace of 300,000, has an Althingi with sixty-three individuals. The bigger the nation the more probable it is to be bicameral. All things considered, unicameral majority rule governments have populaces not as much as a large portion of that of bicameral nations. Four out of five government states are bicameral, contrasted and one-fourth of unitary states. The representation premise of some second

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