ETOPS Briefing Part 1 - Definition History .

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ET PS Briefing. ETOPS HIST RY. Delhi - February 1999. Definitions. What is the meaning of ETOPS?  E xtended range with T win engine aircraft OP eration S What is the scope of ETOPS?
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ET PS Briefing ETOPS HIST RY Delhi - February 1999

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Definitions What is the importance of ETOPS?  E xtended territory with T win motor air ship OP eration S What is the extent of ETOPS? �� ��  Operation of twin motor flying machine on courses that go more distant than 1 hour from a preoccupation landing strip

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Definitions 60\' circles KHI BOM SLL JIB CMB NBO Non ETOPS flight

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Definitions 60\' circles KHI BOM SLL JIB CMB NBO ETOPS flight

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Definitions ETOPS controls are relevant to: �� ��  Overwater operations �� ��  Overland operations (forsake areas...) What is the importance of EROPS? �� ��  E xtended R ange OP eration S �� ��  EROPS depicts the pertinence of ETOPS necessities to any flying machine, notwithstanding the quantity of motors

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History Extended territory "operations" began mid: 1909: first English Channel crossing (L. Bleriot) 1919: first North Atlantic Ocean crossing (J. Alcock & A. Cocoa)

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History 1927: first constant New York - Paris (C. Lindbergh) first US Cost-Hawaï crossing (A.Hegenberger & L.Maitland) first South Atlantic cro ssing (D. Costes & J. Le Brix) Extended territory "operations" began early:

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History 1928: first Pacific Ocean crossing (C.K. Smith & C.T. Ulm) 1930: first relentless Paris - Ne w York (D. Costes & M. Bellonte) Extended territory "operations" began early:

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History "Broadened run" commerc ial operations began in the late 1930s: 1936: first trans-Pacific commerc ial flights 1939: first trans-Atla ntic business flights

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History These sorts of flights required expansive multi-engined flyi ng-water crafts: poor motor unwavering quality and execution couldn\'t permit plan of similarly productive twin motor air ship

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History Piston motor dependability The accompanying graph (1953 ICAO report) gives the likelihood of disappointment for cylinder motors versus control at 1000 consistent rpm: the likelihood of disappointment increments as power is expanded

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History Piston motor dependability (cont\'d) The 1953 ICAO report demonstrates that for a similar measure of introduced pull, the danger of a motor disappointment is more prominent on a 2 motor outline than on a 4 motor outline: plan required hp

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History As solid and sensibly light motors had restricted power: plan of long range flying machine (high weight) suggested establishment of a few motors (more than two) twin motor flying machine had l imited payload/go execution and were just worked on sh ort flights

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History In 1953, further to an audit of the cylinder motor dependability, the FAA distributed the underlying "a hour" lead: appropriate to three (until 1964) and two motor air ship extraordinary endorsement for operations past a hour in the meantime, ICAO issued its "hour and a half" proposals: no plane might be worked past 90 min (all motors agent) from a preoccupation landing strip, aside from if the course can be flown with two motors out of commission normal elucidation was that twin motor air ship could be worked on a hour and a half courses

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History Until 1952, every business flight were worked with cylinder motor controlled planes: 1952: first business operation with fly plane (DH Comet 1) 1958: first transoceanic business stream operation (DH Comet 4) Since 1960, fly motor fueled air ship dynamically supplanted cylinder motor controlled airplane: on all long range courses on the majority of provincial courses

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History Higher execution of fly motors permitted operations of twins on 90 min courses (Caribbeans, Africa, Bay of Bengal, North Atlantic, South China Sea, ...)

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History Jet motor dependability More than 40 years of fly operations have demonstrated that not at all like cylinder motors, fly motor disappointment likelihood is not influenced by the push or the extent of the motor: Therefore, the likelihood of a motor disappointment is currently higher on a quad-fly than on a twin-fly (for 1000 FH)

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History The presentation in the 1980s of twin air ship (A310, B767) fueled with cutting edge (fuel effective) turbofan motors made the old 60/hour and a half standards insufficient: 1984: ICAO ETOPS examine assemble revise Annex 6 1985: FAA distributes first ETOPS direction to address 120 min operations 1985: first ETOPS operation (SIA/A310 - TWA/B767)

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History In 1988, the Authorities distributed tenets for 180 minutes ETOPS in light of the great involvement with 120 minutes operations: today, ETOPS operation is speaking to more than 60% of North Atlantic operations Regulatory exchanges are on-going to survey: augmentation of as far as possible past 180 minutes increment of the non-ETOPS limit over a hour

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