Exchanged Substrate Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor Incorporated Circuit Innovation.

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Coordinated Circuit Technology. M Rodwell , Q Lee, D Mensa, J Guthrie, Y Betser, S ... Exchanged Substrate HBT Integrated Circuits. 47 GHz expert slave ...
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1999 IEEE Symposium on Indium Phosphide & Related Materials Transferred-Substrate Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor Integrated Circuit Technology M Rodwell , Q Lee, D Mensa, J Guthrie, Y Betser, S Jaganathan, T Mathew, P Krishnan, S Long University of California, Santa Barbara SC Martin, RP Smith, NASA Jet Propulsion Labs Supported by ONR (M Yoder, J Zolper, D Van Vechten), AFOSR ( H Schlossberg )

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Why are HEMTs littler & quicker than HBTs ? FETs have profound submicron measurements. 0.1 µm HEMTs with 400 GHz transmission capacities (satellites). 5 million 1/4-µm MOSFETs on a 200 MHz, $500 CPU. FET sidelong scaling diminishes travel times. FET data transmissions then increment. HBTs have ~1 µm intersections. vertical scaling diminishes electron travel times. vertical scaling builds RC charging times. parallel scaling ought to diminish RC charging times. HBT & RTD transmission capacities ought to then increment. Be that as it may, HBTs should first be altered . . .

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Scaling for THz gadget transmission capacities

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Current-pick up cutoff recurrence in HBTs Collector speeds can be high: speed overshoot in InGaAs Base bandgap evaluating diminishes travel time significantly RC terms entirely imperative for > 200 GHz ft gadgets

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Excess Collector-Base Capacitance in Mesa HBTs base contacts: must be > 1 exchange length (0.3 m) ® sets least gatherer width ® sets least authority capacitance Ccb base resistance spreading resistance scales with emitter scaling contact resistance autonomous of emitter scaling ® sets least base resistance ® sets least R bb C cb time consistent f max does not enhance with submicron scaling

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Transferred-Substrate HBTs: A Scalable HBT Technology Collector capacitance lessens with scaling: Bandwidth increments quickly with scaling:

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Thinning base, authority epitaxial layers enhances ft, debases fmax Lateral scaling gives moderate changes in fmax Regrowth (like Si BJT !) ought to help extensively Transferred-substrate helps drastically

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50 mm exchanged substrate HBT Wafer: Cu substrate

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0 . 5 0 - 0 . 5 - 1 - 1 . 5 - 2 0 1 0 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0 6 0 D i s t a n c e , Å AlInAs/GaInAs evaluated base HBT C o l e c t o r d e p l e t i o n r e g i o n E m i t e r S c h o t k y c o l e c t o r G r a d e d b a s e Band outline under typical working voltages V = 0.9 V , V = 0.7 V ce be D • 400 Å 5E19 reviewed base ( E = 2kT), 3000 Å authority g

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Transferred-Substrate Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor Device with 0.6 µm emitter & 1.8 µm gatherer extrapolated fmax at instrument limits, >400 GHz (?) 0.25 µm gadgets ought to get >1000 GHz fmax

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Submicron Transferred-Substrate HBT 0.4 m x 6 m emitter, 0.4 m x 10 m gatherer

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Emitter Profile: Stepper Device 0.5 m emitter stripe 0.15 m e/b intersection

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Transferred-Substrate HBT: Stepper Lithography 0.4 m emitter, ~0.7 m gatherer

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We=0.2 X 6 m 2 Wc=1.5 X 9 m 2 b =50 DC attributes, stepper gadget

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Given high fmax, vertical scaling exhanges decreased f max for expanded f t

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Transit times: HBT with 2kT base reviewing 2000 Å InGaAs authority 400 Å InGaAs base, 2kT bandgap evaluating

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Why might you need a 1 THz transistor ? Computerized microwave/RF transmitters (DC-20 GHz) direct advanced amalgamation at microwave transfer speeds microwave advanced simple converters Digital microwave/RF collectors delta-sigma ADCs with 10-30 GHz test rates 16 compelling bits at 100 MHz signal transmission capacity ? Fundamental Science: 0.1 µm Ebeam gadget: 1000 GHz transistor (?) transistor hardware in the far-infrared Fast fiber optics, quick advanced correspondences: 200 GHz f t , 500 GHz f max gadget: ~ 75-90 Gb/s 160 Gb/s needs ~350 GHz f t , 500 GHz f max

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Transferred-Substrate HBT ICs: Key Features 100 GHz clock-rate ICs will require: quick transistors short wires –> high IC thickness –> high warm conductivity low capacitance wiring low ground inductance –> microstrip wiring environment Transferred Substrate HBT ICs offer: 800 GHz fmax now , > 1000 GHz with further scaling 250 GHz ft now, >300 GHz with enhanced emitter Ohmics copper substrates/warm vias for heatsinking low capacitance (  = 2.5) wiring

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THz-Bandwidth HBTs ??? profound submicron exchanged substrate regrown-base HBT 2 4 1 5 3 1) regrown P+++ InGaAs extraneous base - > ultra-low-resistance 2) 0.05 µm wide emitter - > ultra low base spreading resistance 3) 0.05 µm wide gatherer - > ultra low authority capacitance 4) 100 Å, carbon-doped evaluated base - > 0.05 ps travel time 5) 1kå thick InP gatherer - > 0.1 ps travel time. Anticipated Performance: Transistor with 500 GHz ft, 1500 GHz fmax

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The wiring environment for 100 GHz rationale

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Why is Improved Wiring Essential? Wire security makes ground skip between IC & bundle ground return circles make inductance 30 GHz M/S D-FF in UCSB - plateau HBT innovation Ground circles & wire securities : corrupt circuit & bundled IC execution

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advanced ADC areas info support L ground return ground streams D V bob in commotion Ground Bound Noise in ADCs Ground ricochet clamor must be ~100 dB beneath full-scale information Differential info will somewhat smother ground commotion coupling ~ 30 to 40 dB regular mode dismissal plausible CMRR inadequate to acquire 100 dB SNR Eliminate ground bob clamor by great IC establishing

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Microstrip IC wiring to Eliminate Ground Bounce Noise Transferred-substrate HBT process gives vias & ground plane.

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Power Density in 100 GHz rationale Transistors firmly stuffed to minimize delays 10 5 W/cm 2 HBT intersection power thickness. ~10 3 W/cm 2 power thickness on-chip ® 75 C temperature ascend in 500 m substrate. Arrangements: Thin substrate to < 100 m Replace semiconductor with metal ® copper substrate

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Transferred-Substrate HBT Integrated Circuits 11 dB, 50+ GHz AGC/constraining speaker 47 GHz expert slave flip-flop 10 dB, 50+ GHz input intensifier 7 dB, 5-80 GHz dispersed enhancer

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Transferred-Substrate HBT Integrated Circuits multiplexer 16 dB, DC-60 GHz enhancer W-band VCO 2:1 demultiplexer (120 HBTs) 6.7 dB, DC-85 GHz enhancer Clock recuperation PLL

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Darlington Amplifier - 360 GHz GBW 15.6 dB DC pick up Interpolated 3dB transmission capacity of 60 GHz 360 GHz pick up data transmission item

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6.7 dB, 85 GHz Mirror Darlington Amplifier 6.7 dB DC pick up 3 dB transmission capacity of 85 GHz f t - doubler (mirror Darlington) design

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Master-Slave Flip-Flops CML: 47 GHz ECL: 48 GHz

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66 GHz Static Frequency Divider in Transferred-substrate HBT Technology Q. Lee, D. Mensa, J. Guthrie, S. Jaganathan, T. Mathew, Y. Betser, S. Krishnan, S. Ceran, M.J.W. Rodwell University of California, Santa Barbara IEEE RFIC\'99, Anaheim, California

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Fiber Optic ICs (not yet working !) PIN/transimpedance speaker CML choice circuit AGC/restricting enhancer

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Delta-Sigma ADC In Development (300 HBTs)

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Transferred Substrate HBTs A ultrafast bipolar coordinated circuit innovation Ultrahigh fmax HBTs Low capacitance interconnects Superior heat sinking, low parasitic bundling Demonstrated: HBTs with fmax > 800 GHz quick flip-flops, 85 GHz intensifiers, ... Future: 0.1 m HBTs with fmax > 1000 GHz 100 GHz advanced rationale ICs - > DACs, DDS, ADCs, fiber

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