Experience from the Cedar River TMDL .

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Category: Education / Career
Venture staff:. Jim Baker, ISU/IDALSDean Lemke, IDALSJack Riessen, IDNRDan Jaynes, USDA-ARSMarty Atkins, USDA-NRCSRick Robinson, AFBFSunday Tim, ISUMatt Helmers, ISUJohn Sawyer, ISUMike Duffy, ISUAntonio Mallarino, ISUSteve Padgitt, ISUBill Crumpton,ISU.
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Encounter from the Cedar River TMDL "Hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico: Implications and Strategies for Iowa" Jim Baker Professor emeritus, ISU/IDALS October 16, 2008

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Project faculty: Jim Baker, ISU/IDALS Dean Lemke, IDALS Jack Riessen, IDNR Dan Jaynes, USDA-ARS Marty Atkins, USDA-NRCS Rick Robinson, AFBF Sunday Tim, ISU Matt Helmers, ISU John Sawyer, ISU Mike Duffy, ISU Antonio Mallarino, ISU Steve Padgitt, ISU Bill Crumpton,ISU

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"Contextual analysis of the cost and effectiveness of practices expected to lessen supplement stacks locally and to the Gulf of Mexico" Cedar River Watershed Preliminary outcomes Funded 90% State of Iowa (IDALS) 10% UMRSHNC (EPA Grant)

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Agriculture waste concerns: Quality issues of: "fishable" "swimable" "drinkable" But additionally amount issues: not "pretty much nothing" not all that "highly" coordinated "right"

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A flying picture of downtown Cedar Rapids, Iowa indicates surge influenced zones June 13, 2008. (Photograph by David Greedy/Getty Images)

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Need to instruct people in general to abstain from having "implausible desires" Natural varieties (in climate) can overwhelm results. a 10+ inch rain will overpower everything at whatever time abundance water moves over or through the dirt, supplement misfortunes will happen Extreme measures accompany outrageous expenses e.g., changing over Corn Belt back to prairies and wetlands yield diminishments with serious decreases in supplement contributions to lessen off-site misfortunes Concern for unintended reactions "mining of the dirt" when supplement evacuation surpasses inputs dislodging required generation to all the more naturally delicate zones

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Background Nitrate issues TMDL for drinking water weakness Gulf of Mexico hypoxia range decrease Phosphorus issues Pending criteria for neighborhood streaming and standing waters Gulf of Mexico hypoxia zone diminishment

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Loss diminishment objectives TMDL nitrate Maximum fixation 9.5 mg/L Reduce misfortunes 35% Reduce misfortunes 10,000 tons/year (rises to 5.5 lb N/section of land/year) Load distribution: 92% nonpoint source; 8% point source Hypoxia territory Reduce N misfortunes 45% Reduce P misfortunes 45%

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Cedar River Watershed 3,650,000 sections of land inside Iowa above city of Cedar Rapids Nitrate misfortunes (2001 – 2004 period) 28,561 tons/year 15.6 lb/section of land/year 73% line edit (2,400,000 sections of land corn/beans; 150,000 sections of land ceaseless corn) About 2/3 of the column trim land has tile seepage Annual precipitation: around 34 inches stream (2001 - 2004 period) Total 8 inches "Base stream" around 65% of aggregate

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Potential N Management Practices In-field N rate/timing Cropping Tillage Cover crops Water administration Off-site Buffer strips Constructed wetlands

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Practices (nitrate) N rate Starting point basic NASS compost information for 2005 for four upper east Iowa sub-locales is 124 lb N/section of land/year on corn IDALS vast manure deals information for 2001 – 2005 found the middle value of 137 lb N/section of land/year on corn Manure applications (?) ISU proposals For corn taking after soybeans: 100 – 150 lb N/section of land For consistent corn: 150 – 200 lb N/section of land

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Based on Iowa yield and water quality information; corn at $5.00/bu and N at $0.50/lb

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Based on Iowa yield and water quality information; corn at $5.00/bu and N at $0.50/lb

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Based on Iowa yield and water quality information; corn at $5.00/bu and N at $0.50/lb

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Practices (nitrate) N timing 25 to 33% of N for corn is connected in fall Leaching misfortunes with spring-connected N are 0 – 15% less Half of aggregate N connected is smelling salts N and half of that is connected in the fall Costs of alkali could go up 5 pennies/lb for extra framework expected to apply every last bit of it in the spring (yield impacts could be + or - ) However, this expansion would apply to all N sold, not only that presently fall-connected.

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Practices (nitrate) Fall cover crops Fall-planted rye or ryegrass can diminish nitrate filtering misfortune by half Fall-planted oats by 25% Costs Incentive expenses for rye: $30/section of land (seed, planting, managing the living plants in the spring, conceivable corn yield decrease) For oats: $20/section of land (plants not alive in spring) For persistent corn Rye misfortune lessening: $2.59/lb N Oats misfortune lessening: $3.44/lb N For corn-soybeans Rye misfortune decrease: $3.07/lb N Oats misfortune decrease: $4.10/lb N

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Practices (nitrate) Drainage water administration Modeling predicts a ~50% nitrate misfortune lessening with establishment of waste water administration Costs Installation: $1000/section of land (20 year life; 4% intrigue) Operation: $10/section of land/year Applicable to around 6.7% of the line crops Nitrate diminishment expenses of $1.56/lb

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Practices (nitrate) Constructed wetlands At a small amount of 0.5 to 2% of watershed as wetland, expulsion could normal half This would liken to around 8 lb/air conditioning/yr for seepage from column edit arrive Costs Assuming a cost of $250/air conditioning of "treated field" for wetland foundation, this would be about $1.45/lb more than 50 years (4% intrigue).

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Practices (nitrate) Tillage There are a few signs that lessened culturing, and especially no-till, could diminish nitrate fixations in tile seepage, perhaps in light of decreased mineralization with lessened soil unsettling influence. Likewise water course through more macropores with decreased culturing could permit water to "by-pass" nitrate inside soil totals. Be that as it may, normally any decreases in focuses are off-set by expanded stream volumes with diminished culturing. In this way, without more indisputable outcomes, culturing is not presently being considered as a practice to decrease nitrate filtering misfortunes.

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Practices (nitrate) Buffer strips Tile waste "shortcircuits" subsurface course through support strips, taking out any possibility they would have in diminishing focuses and additionally stream volumes and in this manner nitrate misfortunes.

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One case situation to diminish nitrate misfortunes 35% (9,200 tons/non-point source distribution) while holding column trim generation

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Scaling to Iowa Statewide About ¼ of Iowa is tile depleted: levels with 9 million sections of land Cost to Cedar River watershed (1.7 million sections of land depleted) assessed at $29.6 million/year Cost to Iowa would be $157 million/yr for 35% nitrate expulsion For the following 10%, to achieve a 45% lessening, wetlands, cover edits, and facilitate decreases in N applications are just alternatives left (unless trimming changes) – all with expanded lb N/air conditioning costs.

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P misfortune diminishment Based on report #3 of the "Coordinated Assessment" furthermore the Iowa state supplement spending plan, the normal P misfortune with waterway stream is around 0.75 lb/air conditioning/yr. A 45% decrease of the 1,560 tons of P misfortune every year would be 702 tons. On the other hand the normal, add up to P focus (that in water in addition to dregs) would need to be decreased from 0.415 to 0.228 mg/L. [Note that the draft P model for standing waters (i.e. lakes) in Iowa is being proposed at 0.035 mg/L].

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Using the Iowa P Index It has three parts: disintegration/soil misfortune surface spillover subsurface waste (assuming any) It considers area and soil and climate qualities separation to water course soil incline/sort yearly precipitation It considers administration flow P soil test level measure of P augmentations technique for P increments trim turn It considers dregs transport control rehearses vegetated support stripes It considers disintegration control works on (utilizing RUSLE2) molding protection culturing

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P record counts in two Cedar River subwatersheds (Chad Ingels and John Rodecap; ISU expansion)

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Results of P file computations Coldwater-Palmer 207 fields 99 with P list > 1.00 (lb/air conditioning/yr) 9 with P list > 2.00 max = 6.12; normal = 1.06 normal soil test P = 34 ppm (max = 401; 54% over the ideal range) Lime Creek 209 fields 67 with P file > 1.00 (lb/air conditioning/yr) 3 with P file > 2.00 max = 3.01; normal = 1.07 normal soil test P = 36 ppm (max = 120; 57% over the ideal range)

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Practice: diminishing soil test levels to the ideal level The break amongst "ideal" and "high" soil test P levels (Bray-1) for line yields is 20 ppm. At 20 ppm soil test P level, solvent P in surface overflow is evaluated at 0.150 mg/L. At 35 ppm, it is 0.225 mg/L. With 35% of stream assessed to be surface overflow, that would be 2.8." Over time, decreased or no P contributions to fields testing "high" would spare cash and diminish P levels and misfortunes. The lessening in P misfortune connected with diminishing the normal soil test level from 35 to 20 ppm would meet around 1/7 of that required for a 45% decrease.

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Achieving the rest of the 6/7 P diminishment Further change to protection and no culturing (right now 4% no-till). Extra forming (as of now 6%). Utilization of vegetated support strips. Utilization of water and silt control bowls. Utilization of patios.

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Summary: Potential and impediments (1) For the Cedar River TMDL for nitrate, there is the possibility to achieve the 35% lessening objective. The impediments will be the expansive direct expenses, and additionally program expenses to accomplish maker collaboration to roll out the real improvements required.

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Summary: Potential and impediments (2) For the Gulf Hypoxia decrease objective of 45% for aggregate nitrogen, the potential is much lower. One constraint will be that in the tile-depleted territories, the unit costs for nitrate decrease more than 35% will increment. Besides, if the lessening in absolute nitrogen, of which nitrate is around 2/3, needs to get through extra nitrate decrease, the expenses will be considerably higher.

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Summary: Potential and confinements (3) For the Gulf Hypoxia lessening objective of 45% for aggregate phosphorus, the potential is likewise much lower. Notwithstanding expansive expenses and real creation changes required, there is the worry that decreasing field P misfortunes, and all the more significantly diminishing P which is really transport

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