EXTRACTION OF METALS An aide for A level understudies .


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. . . . INTRODUCTIONThis Powerpoint show is one of a few delivered to offer understudies some assistance with understanding chose themes at AS and A2 level Chemistry. It depends on the necessities of the AQA and OCR determinations however is suitable for other examination boards.Individual understudies may utilize the material at home for amendment purposes or it might be utilized for classroom showing if an intelligent white board is av
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EXTRACTION OF METALS A guide for A level understudies KNOCKHARDY PUBLISHING

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KNOCKHARDY PUBLISHING EXTRACTION OF METALS INTRODUCTION This Powerpoint show is one of a few created to help understudies comprehend chose points at AS and A2 level Chemistry. It depends on the necessities of the AQA and OCR details however is reasonable for other examination sheets. Singular understudies may utilize the material at home for amendment purposes or it might be utilized for classroom showing if an intelligent white board is accessible. Going with notes on this, and the full scope of AS and A2 subjects, are accessible from the KNOCKHARDY SCIENCE WEBSITE at... www.knockhardy.org.uk/sci.htm Navigation is accomplished by... either clicking on the dark bolts at the foot of each page or using the left and right bolt keys on the console

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EXTRACTION OF METALS CONTENTS Theory of Extraction of iron Conversion of iron into steel Extraction of aluminum Extraction of titanium Extraction of chromium Extraction of sodium Recycling

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EXTRACTION OF METALS Before you begin it is useful to… Recall the design of the reactivity arrangement Recall meanings of decrease, oxidation and redox

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GENERAL PRINCIPLES OCCURRENCE • minerals of a few metals are exceptionally normal (iron, aluminum) • others happen just in constrained amounts in chose regions • high review metals are less expensive to prepare in light of the fact that, metals should be purged before being lessened to the metal

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GENERAL PRINCIPLES THEORY The strategy used to concentrate metals relies on upon the . . . • virtue required • vitality necessities • cost of the decreasing operator • position of the metal in the reactivity arrangement

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GENERAL PRINCIPLES REACTIVITY SERIES K Na Ca Mg Al C Zn Fe H Cu Ag • records metals in dropping reactivity • hydrogen and carbon are frequently included • the more responsive a metal the more improbable it will be found in its immaculate, or local, state • thus, it will be harder to change over it back to the metal.

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GENERAL PRINCIPLES METHODS - GENERAL Low in series occur local or Cu, Ag extracted by simmering an ore Middle of series metals beneath carbon are extricated by lessening Zn, Fe of the oxide with carbon or carbon monoxide High in series reactive metals are separated utilizing electrolysis Na, Al -a costly technique because of vitality costs Variations can happen because of exceptional properties of the metal.

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GENERAL PRINCIPLES METHODS - SPECIFIC • decrease of metal oxides with carbon IRON • diminishment of metal halides with a metal TITANIUM • lessening of metal oxides by electrolysis Aluminum • lessening of metal oxides with a metal CHROMIUM

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IRON

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EXTRACTION OF IRON GENERAL PROCESS • happens in the BLAST FURNACE • high temperature prepare • nonstop • press minerals are REDUCED via carbon/carbon monoxide • is conceivable in light of the fact that iron is beneath carbon in the reactivity arrangement

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EXTRACTION OF IRON RAW MATERIALS HAEMATITE - Fe 2 O 3 a wellspring of iron COKE fuel/diminishing specialist CHEAP AND PLENTIFUL LIMESTONE conversion of silica into slag (calcium silicate) – USED IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY AIR wellspring of oxygen for burning

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THE BLAST FURNACE G IN THE BLAST FURNACE IRON ORE IS REDUCED TO IRON. THE REACTION IS POSSIBLE BECAUSE CARBON IS ABOVE IRON IN THE REACTIVITY SERIES Click on the letters to perceive what is occurring A C D B E F

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THE BLAST FURNACE COKE, LIMESTONE AND IRON ORE ARE ADDED AT THE TOP Now move the cursor far from the tower A

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C + O 2 CO 2 CARBON + OXYGEN CARBON + HEAT DIOXIDE THE BLAST FURNACE HOT AIR IS BLOWN IN NEAR THE BOTTOM OXYGEN IN THE AIR REACTS WITH CARBON IN THE COKE. THE REACTION IS HIGHLY EXOTHERMIC AND GIVES OUT HEAT. B Now move the cursor far from the tower

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C + CO 2 2CO THE BLAST FURNACE THE CARBON DIOXIDE PRODUCED REACTS WITH MORE CARBON TO PRODUCE CARBON MONOXIDE Now move the cursor far from the tower C CARBON + CARBON DIOXIDE MONOXIDE

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3CO + Fe 2 O 3 3CO 2 + 2Fe THE BLAST FURNACE THE CARBON MONOXIDE REDUCES THE IRON OXIDE CARBON + IRON CARBON + IRON MONOXIDE OXIDE DIOXIDE Now move the cursor far from the tower D REDUCTION INVOLVES REMOVING OXYGEN

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CaO + SiO 2 CaSiO 3 CaCO 3 CaO + CO 2 THE BLAST FURNACE SILICA IN THE IRON ORE IS REMOVED BY REACTING WITH LIME PRODUCED FROM THE THERMAL DECOMPOSITION OF LIMESTONE CALCIUM SILICATE (SLAG) IS PRODUCED MOLTEN SLAG IS RUN OFF AND COOLED E Now move the cursor far from the tower

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THE BLAST FURNACE MOLTEN IRON RUNS TO THE BOTTOM OF THE FURNACE. IT IS TAKEN OUT (CAST) AT REGULAR INTERVALS CAST IRON - modest and effectively shaped - utilized for drainpipes, motor squares F Now move the cursor far from the tower

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THE BLAST FURNACE G HOT WASTE Gasses ARE RECYCLED TO AVOID POLLUTION AND SAVE ENERGY CARBON MONOXIDE - POISONOUS Sulfur DIOXIDE - ACIDIC RAIN CARBON DIOXIDE - GREENHOUSE GAS RECAP

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SLAG PRODUCTION • silica (sand) is found with the iron metal • it is evacuated by responding it with limestone • calcium silicate (SLAG) is created • liquid slag is keep running off and cooled • it is utilized for building pieces and street establishments

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SLAG PRODUCTION • silica (sand) is found with the iron metal • it is expelled by responding it with limestone • calcium silicate (SLAG) is delivered • liquid slag is keep running off and cooled • it is utilized for building pieces and street establishments EQUATIONS limestone deteriorates on heating CaCO 3 — > CaO + CO 2 calcium oxide consolidates with silica CaO + SiO 2 — > CaSiO 3 overall CaCO 3 + SiO 2 — > CaSiO 3 + CO 2

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WASTE Gasses AND POLLUTION Sulfur DIOXIDE • sulfur is found in the coke; sulfides happen in the iron metal • consuming sulfur and sulphides S + O 2 — > SO 2 produces sulfur dioxide • sulfur dioxide gives SO 2 + H 2 O — > H 2 SO 3 ascend to corrosive rain sulfurous corrosive CARBON DIOXIDE • consuming fossil fills expands the measure of this nursery gas

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LIMITATIONS OF CARBON REDUCTION Theoretically, a few other imperative metals can be separated along these lines however are not on the grounds that they join with the carbon to frame a carbide e.g. Molybdenum, Titanium, Vanadium, Tungsten

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STEEL MAKING Iron delivered in the impact heater is exceptionally fragile because of the high measure of carbon it contains. In the Basic Oxygen Process , the abundance carbon is scorched off in a converter and the right measure of carbon added to make steel. Different metals (e.g. chromium) can be added to make master steels. Expulsion of contaminations SILICA include calcium oxide CaO + SiO 2 — > CaSiO 3 CARBON include oxygen C + O 2 — > CO 2 PHOSPHORUS include oxygen 2P + 5O 2 — > P 4 O 10 SULPHUR include magnesium Mg + S — > MgS

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TYPES OF STEEL MILD easily squeezed into shape chains and arches LOW CARBON soft, effortlessly shaped HIGH CARBON strong yet brittle chisels, disposable cutters, saws STAINLESS hard, impervious to corrosion tools, sinks, cutlery (contains chromium and nickel) COBALT can take a sharp edge fast cutting instruments can be magnetised perpetual magnets MANGANESE increased strength focuses in railroad tracks NICKEL resists warm and acids modern plant , cutlery TUNGSTEN stays hard at high temps rapid cutting apparatuses

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TITANIUM

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EXTRACTION OF TITANIUM • titanium metals (titanium(IV) oxide - TiO 2 ) are extremely basic • titanium however is not utilized widely as its extraction is troublesome utilizing routine techniques • the oxide can be lessened via carbon yet the titanium created responds with the carbon to give titanium carbide • the extraction is a group procedure so there is much time squandered and warm lost; this makes it significantly more costly

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EXTRACTION OF TITANIUM • the oxide is initially changed over to the chloride TiO 2 (s) + 2C(s) + 2Cl 2 (g) — > TiCl 4 (l) + 2CO(g) • which is then diminished with sodium. TiCl 4 (l) + 4Na(s) — > Ti(s) + 4NaCl(s) The diminishment of TiCl 4 is completed in an environment of argon on the grounds that the titanium responds with oxygen at high temperatures.

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EXTRACTION OF TITANIUM • the oxide is initially changed over to the chloride TiO 2 (s) + 2C(s) + 2Cl 2 (g) — > TiCl 4 (l) + 2CO(g) • which is then lessened with sodium. TiCl 4 (l) + 4Na(s) — > Ti(s) + 4NaCl(s) The lessening of TiCl 4 is completed in a climate of argon in light of the fact that the titanium responds with oxygen at high temperatures. Titanium is STRONG and RESISTANT TO CORROSION so is utilized as a part of making ARTIFICIAL JOINTS.

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Aluminum

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EXTRACTION OF Aluminum is above carbon in the arrangement so it can\'t be extricated from its metals in an indistinguishable path from carbon. Electrolysis of liquid aluminum mineral (alumina) must be utilized As vitality is required to liquefy the alumina and electrolyse it, a lot of vitality is required.

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EXTRACTION OF Aluminum RAW MATERIALS BAUXITE aluminum metal Bauxite contains alumina (Al 2 O 3 aluminum oxide) in addition to contaminations, for example, press oxide – it is filtered before utilize.

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EXTRACTION OF Aluminum RAW MATERIALS BAUXITE aluminium metal Bauxite contains alumina (Al 2 O 3 aluminum oxide) in addition to i

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