Field-impact transistors FETs .


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The Field Effect Transistor (FET). In 1945, Shockley had a thought for making a strong state gadget out of semiconductors. He contemplated that an in number electrical field could bring about the stream of power inside of an adjacent semiconductor. He attempted to assemble one, however it didn\'t work. After three years, Brattain
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Slide 1

Carcinoma endometriale: la terapia adiuvante Quale e Quando Vincenzo Scotto di Palumbo Ospedale Santo Spirito in Sassia Roma

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La stadiazione FIGO 1988

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Grading e sopravvivenza

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Invasione miometriale e sopravvivenza

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Il problema linfonodale

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Fattori di prognosi e sopravvivenza

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Terapia adiuvante ormonoterapia radioterapia chemioterapia combinazioni

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Ormonoterapia Cochrane Gynecological Cancer Group: "Progestagens for endometrial growth" Metanalysis of 6 clinical trials (4351 patients) Only 3 trials with Stage I patients In 3 trials likewise patients with cutting edge ailment Martin-Hirsch P L, Jarvis G, Kitchener H, Lilford R. Progestagens for endometrial disease (Cochrane Review). The Cochrane Library, Issue 1, 2008

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Cochrane audit: adjuvant progestagens

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Radioterapia adjuvante Fasci esterni Brachiterapia Combinazione delle due modalità

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Locoregional repeat All stage I patients: External shaft radiotherapy versus No outside bar radiotherapy Distant repeat All stage I patients: External bar radiotherapy versus No outer bar radiotherapy Adjuvant radiotherapy for stage I endometrial tumor; orderly survey and meta-examination (Cochrane Review). In: Annals of Oncology 22 , 1596-1604, 2007

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Endometrial disease related passings Subgroup examination of patients no less than 1 high hazard consider , Ic or review 3 Endometrial malignancy related passings Subgroup investigation of patients no less than 2 high hazard calculate , Ic or review 3 Adjuvant radiotherapy for stage I endometrial growth; precise audit and meta-investigation (Cochrane Review). In: Annals of Oncology 22 , 1596-1604, 2007

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Adjuvant outside bar radiotherapy ( EBRT ) in the treatment of endometrial disease: aftereffects of the randomized MRC ASTEC and NCIC CTC EN.5 trials Inclusion criteria Stage 1A review 3 Stage 1B review 3 Stage 1C review 1-3 Serous or clear-cell growths EN.5 began July 1996; ASTEC July 1998 905 patients randomized J Orton. ASCO 2007

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Results sans recurrence Survival Overall Survival Isolated Vaginal or Pelvic Initial Recurrence J Orton. ASCO 2007

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Metanalisi su general survival 0.2 % contrast in 5-year OS (87.8% in EBRT and 88% in no EBRT) 95% CI of distinction = - 2.0% to 3.0% J Orton. ASCO 2007

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Maggi R, BJC 95: 266-271, 2006

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Caratteristiche dello studio Inclusions criteria Stage IC review 3 Stage IIA-IIB review 3 with myometrial intrusion > half Stage III Maggi R, BJC 95: 266-271, 2006

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Sopravvivenza libera da malattia Maggi R, BJC 95: 266-271, 2006

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Sopravvivenza totale Maggi R, BJC 95: 266-271, 2006

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Stage III or IV " low volume " - Any histology Residual tumor not exactly  2 cm after surgery 424 pts Whole stomach radiotherapy ( WAI ) 30 Gy in 20 day by day parts Boost to the pelvis or to a developed field including pelvic and para-aortic lymph hubs Chemotherapy Doxorubicin 60 mg/m 2 Cisplatin 50 mg/m 2 Every 3 weeks, for 8 cycles (only Cisplatin was to be mixed amid the 8°cycle) Randall ME, J Clin Oncol 24: 36-44, 2006

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Sopravvivenza libera da malattia HR 0.71 (95%CI 0.55-0.91, p<0.01) Randall ME, J Clin Oncol 24: 36-44, 2006

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55% 42% Sopravvivenza totale HR 0.68 (95%0.52-0.89, p<0.01) Randall ME, J Clin Oncol 24: 36-44, 2006

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Conclusions Randall ME, J Clin Oncol 24: 36-44, 2006

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NSGO EORTC A randomized stage III review on adjuvant treatment with radiation (RT) +/ - chemotherapy (CT) in early stage high-chance endometrial malignancy (NSGO-EC-9501/EORTC 55991) Inclusion criteria Stage IC, II or III growth in addition to review 3 histology Serous or clear-cell diseases Aneuploid tumors in addition to review 3 histology Aneuploid tumors in addition to stage IC, II or III disease Thomas Hogberg, ASCO. 2007

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NSGO EORTC A randomized stage III review on adjuvant treatment with radiation (RT) +/ - chemotherapy (CT) in early stage high-hazard endometrial tumor (NSGO-EC-9501/EORTC 55991) RANDOMIZATION Thomas Hogberg, ASCO. 2007

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Sopravivenza libera da malattia HR 0.62 (CI 0.40-0.97) p=0.03; evaluated distinction in 5-yr PFS 7% from 72% to 79%

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Sopravivenza totale HR 0.65 (CI 0.40-1.06) p=0.08; assessed contrast in 5-yr OS 8% from 74% to 82%

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Considerazioni degli autori HR 0.35 (CI 0.16-0.77) p=0.009; assessed distinction in 5-yr PFS 14% from 73% to 87%

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Conclusions Despite that 27% of patients randomized to CT+RT got no, or just gathering of the endorsed CT, CT+RT was superior to RT alone as adjuvant treatment for patients with early endometrial malignancy at high hazard for micrometastases

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GOG 184 Register Regimen I* Doxorubicin** 45mg/mq Cisplatin 50mg/mq G-CSF*** 5mcg/kg 2-11 R A N D O M I Z E D Endometrial carcinoma Surgical stage III Hysterectomy and BSO <2 cm Residual illness Optimal Lymph Node Sampling Pelvic +/ - Para-Aortic Irradiation +/ - Intravaginal Brachytherapy Regimen II* Doxorubicin** 45mg/mq day 1 Cisplatin 50mg/mq day 1 Paclitaxel 160mg/mq day 2 G-CSF*** 5mcg/kg 3-12 *q weeks 3 x 6 courses **Maximum add up to doxorubicin measurements is 270 mg/mq for both regimen

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Serie OSS 2005 - 2007

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OSS approach st I Ia G1, G2 osservazione Ia G3 RT pelvica se presenti RF Ib G1, G2 osservazione Ib G3 RT pelvica se presenti RF Ic G1 osservazione Ic G2, G3 RT pelvica + CT istotipi speciali RF età>60a, LVI, dimensioni del T, coinvolgimento della parte bassa del corpo

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OSS strategy st II, III IIa G1 osservazione IIb G2, G3 RT pelvica IIIa G1, G2 osservazione se solo cit + IIIa G3 RT pelvica + CT IIIb CT + RT IIIc CT + RT pelvi ev LA

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