Financial Development of Japan .


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Monetary Improvement of Japan. No.4 Meiji 2&3. Meiji Mura. P.56. Japan's financial development was driven for the most part by private dynamism while arrangement was likewise useful . Total history, Edo accomplishments, national solidarity and patriotism. Private-area dynamism and business enterprise
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Financial Development of Japan No.4 Meiji 2&3 Meiji Mura

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P.56 Japan\'s monetary development was driven essentially by private dynamism while approach was additionally useful Cumulative history, Edo accomplishments, national solidarity and patriotism Private-area dynamism and business enterprise (essential compel) Rapid industrialization esp. Meiji and post WW2 period Policy was by and large fruitful in spite of reactions: - Power syndication by previous Satsuma & Choshu government officials - Privatization outrage, 1881 - Excessively professional West - Unfair by today\'s standard Policy bolster (supplementary)

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PP.57-58 Chronology of Meiji Industrialization 1870s - Monetary perplexity and expansion US keeping money framework received with little achievement Printing cash to smother Saigo\'s Rebellion (1877) Early 1880s - Matsukata Deflation Stopping swelling, making national (Bank of Japan) Landless laborers & urban poor ("low class") rise Late 1880s - First organization blast Osaka Spinning Company and its devotees Series of organization blasts (late 1890s, late 1900s, WW1) Postwar administration (after J-China War & J-Russia War) Fiscal spending proceeded even after war  BoP emergency Active foundation building (neighborhood gov\'ts) & military development Masayoshi Matsukata (Councilor of Finance)

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Inflation in Meiji Period P.230 Source: Management and Coordination Agency, Historical Statistics of Japan , Vol.4, 1988.

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Money and Inflation in Early Meiji

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First Company Boom Number of organizations Legal capital (million yen) Yoshio Ando ed, Databook on Modern Japanese Economic History , 2rd ed, Tokyo Univ. Press, 1979.

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PP.62-65 Technology Transfer 1. Outside counselors (open and private part) 2. Building instruction (concentrate abroad, Institute of Technology; specialized secondary schools) 3. Duplicate generation, figuring out, specialized participation assentions (esp. cars, electrical apparatus); sogo shosha (exchanging organizations) frequently intermediated such collaboration Private-area specialists, 1910 Mining 513 (18.0%) Textile 300 (10.6%) Shipbuilding 250 (8.8%) Power & gas 231 (8.1%) Trading 186 (6.5%) Railroad 149 (5.2%) Food 149 (5.2%) TOTAL 2,843 (100%)

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P.64 Studying Abroad (Early Engineers) First understudies: bakufu sent 7 understudies to Netherlands in 1862 (maritime preparing) By 1880s, 80 Japanese contemplated designing abroad (shipbuilding, mechanics, structural designing, mining & metallurgy, military, science) Destination: UK (28), US (20), France (14), Germany (9), Netherlands (8) They got best class instruction and could undoubtedly supplant outsiders in the wake of returning They generally worked in government (no current private enterprises existed at first)— Ministry of Interior, MoF, Army, Navy, Ministry of Industry

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P.64 Kobu Daigakko 工部大学校 (Institute of Technology) 1871 Koburyo of Ministry of Industry; 1877 renamed to Kobu Daigakko ; 1886 converged with Tokyo Imperial University (under Ministry of Education) First President: Henry Dyer (British designer) with logic "reasonable blend of hypothesis and practice" Preparatory course (2 years), specific reviews (2 years), entry level position (2 years) + government-subsidized abroad review for top understudies 8 courses: structural designing, mechanical designing, shipbuilding, media transmission, science, design, metallurgy, mining (classes in English) Producing top-class engineers (import substitution)— Tanabe Sakuro (fashioner of Biwako-Kyoto water system channel & control era); Tatsuno Kingo (developer of Tokyo Station, BOJ, Nara Hotel, and so forth.)

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Parallel advancement or "half and half innovation" PP.65-67

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PP.79-80 Neoclassical Labor Market Japanese specialists: - Too much occupation jumping, don\'t remain with one organization - Lack of train, low sparing - Barrier to industrialization Source: Ministry of Agriculture and Commerce, Survey of Industrial Workers , 1901. Female residential specialists: - Urban industrialization and country destitution and work surplus  female movement from towns to urban areas - End of Meiji to early Showa were the pinnacle time of jochu (housemaid) - 17.5% of non-ranch female workforce, second biggest after material laborers (1930) - 5.7% of family units procured jochu (1930) - There were both youthful and old jochu , some living-in and others driving - International correlation (female non-cultivate business share): UK 1851 (11.4%), US 1910 (11.8%), Thailand 1960 (10.6%), Philippines 1975 (34.3%) Source: Konosuke Odaka, "Double Structure," 1989.

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Wage: Gender Gap Source: Ministry of Agriculture and Commerce, "Table of Wages." Note: 1 yen = 100 sen.

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Konosuke Odaka: World of Craftsmen, World of Factories (NTT Publishing, 2000) In Japan\'s initial manufacturing plants, conventional shokunin (specialists) and present day shokko (laborers) existed together. Experts were glad, experienced and free. They were the primary drive in starting innovation assimilation. Laborers got logical training and worked inside an association. Their abilities and information were open, worldwide and expandable. After some time, skilled workers were supplanted by laborers. Experience was insufficient to develop industrialization. Prof. Odaka demonstrates these focuses by inspecting the historical backdrop of solid firms in metallurgy, apparatus and shipbuilding.

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Prof. Odaka\'s Working Hypotheses In the early years of industrial facilities, Japan\'s customary experts in mechanics and metal working assumed key parts in retaining new innovation. Ranchers and vendors were not reasonable for processing plant operation. In any case, prepared specialists, not experts, made a cutting edge creation framework reasonable for Japan. Adjustment of imported framework to Japanese setting Production administration framework, including enlisted work Skill arrangement framework in light of formal instruction and OJT The hole between specialists\' aptitude and present day innovation must be crossed over. Procured nonnatives, then Japanese specialists, if this extension up to WW2.

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PP.65, 179-181 Monozukuri (Manufacturing) Spirit Mono signifies "thing" and zukuri ( tsukuri ) signifies "making" in indigenous Japanese dialect. It depicts earnest state of mind toward creation with pride, expertise and commitment. It is a method for seeking after development and flawlessness, frequently dismissing benefit or accounting report. A considerable lot of Japan\'s astounding assembling firms were established by architects loaded with monozukuri soul. Akio Morita (Sony\'s fellow benefactor) 1921-1999 Sakichi Toyota 1867-1930 Konosuke Matsushita 1894-1989 Soichiro Honda 1906-1991

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Toyota Techno Museum in Nagoya shows material machines in real operation, including Sakichi Toyota\'s 1924 development. It likewise clarifies Toyota\'s auto history. www.tcmit.org/english/index.html Meiji Mura (Meiji Village) is an outdoors historical center of Meiji engineering and culture, Inuyama City, Aichi Prefecture www.meijimura.com/english/index.html

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