first Language Acquisition .

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first Dialect Securing. How do people secure discourse?. Dialect procurement. We are not conceived talking! Dialect must be obtained. In the event that we think about all that is involved in knowing a dialect, it appears to be a significant test. What Does an Infant Listen?. Dialect nature?.
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first Language Acquisition How do people obtain discourse?

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Language procurement We are not conceived talking! Dialect must be procured. In the event that we think about all that is involved in knowing a dialect, it appears to be a significant test. What Does a Baby Hear?

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Language intuition? Dialect is intrinsic – just surface subtle elements need be found out? Human mind pre-modified for dialect? Dialect an aftereffect of general intellectual capacities of the mind? Neither reveals to us what particular dialect to realize or specific structures to retain.

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Language Universals What proof is there for natural information of certain fundamental dialect highlights introduce in every human dialect? Etymological UNIVERSALS > UNIVERSAL GRAMMAR All dialects have: A sentence structure Basic word arrange (as far as SOV, and so on.) Nouns and verbs Subjects and questions Consonants and vowels Absolute and implicational inclinations E.g., If a dialect has VO arrange, then modifiers have a tendency to take after the head)

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"Widespread Grammar" Humans then figure out how to practice this "all inclusive syntax" (UG) for the particulars of their dialect. Word arrange, syntactic manage inclinations Phonetic and phonological limitations Lexicon Semantic understandings Pragmatic approaches to talk

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Innateness of dialect? Confirm for nature of dialect? The scientist Eric Lenneberg characterized a rundown of qualities that are ordinary of intrinsic (pre-modified) practices in creatures.

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Innate practices . . . Maturationally controlled, rising before they are fundamentally required Do not show up as the aftereffect of a cognizant choice. Try not to show up because of a trigger from outer occasions. Are generally unaffected by direct instructing and serious practice. Take after a normal arrangement of "points of reference" in their advancement. By and large watch a basic period for their securing

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1. Rise before important, can\'t be constrained before booked When is dialect fundamental? At the point when do youngsters as a rule start talking/utilizing dialect intelligibly? Is this rule met?

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2. Are not cognizant Does a tyke choose to intentionally seek after specific aptitudes? (e.g., strolling) Do babies settle on a cognizant choice to begin taking in a dialect? Is this basis met?

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3 . Are not activated What might incite a kid to take up soccer? What might incite a youngster to start talking? Is this foundation met?

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4. Can\'t be shown We CAN instruct prescriptive guidelines of dialect. In any case, we\'re not discussing that here. We right youngsters\' mistakes now and again. Does it offer assistance? \'No one don\'t care for me\' truth be told, "honing" appears to hurt instead of help dialect capacity in kids. Is this foundation met?

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5. Take after points of reference regardless of various foundations, diverse areas, and distinctive childhoods, most youngsters take after the extremely same breakthroughs in gaining dialect. Is this foundation met?

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6. Watch a basic period What is a basic period? For first dialect obtaining, there is by all accounts a basic time of the initial five years, amid which kids must be presented to rich information. There is likewise a period, from around 10-16 years, when securing is conceivable, however not local like. For SLA, the issue is more confounded… More on that later. Is this standard met?

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The Critical Period Hypothesis CPH: Proposed by Lenneberg This theory expresses that there is just a little window of time for a first dialect to be locally gained. On the off chance that a tyke is denied dialect input, she won\'t gain dialect Genie: a young lady found at age 13 who had not obtained her L1 (- - Isabelle and Victor) Normal hearing kid destined to hard of hearing guardians, heard dialect just on TV, did not procure English L1

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More confirmation for the Critical Period Hypothesis Second Language Acquisition: Younger learners local familiarity. More seasoned learners (>17) never entirely make it. ASL Acquisition: Children of Deaf Adults (CODAs) have favorable position over later-learners of ASL in marking Aphasia: Less possibility of recuperation of phonetic capacity after age 5. Lateralization

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So how DO we take in our first dialect?

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L1 obtaining Sound generation/chattering Phonological securing Morphological/Syntactical procurement Semantic improvement

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Caretaker Speech An enroll portrayed by: Simplified dictionary Phonological diminishment Higher pitch Stressed inflection Simple sentences High number of interrogatives (Mom) & goals (Dad) Caretaker Speech

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ASL Caretaker Speech Some of the real components: marking on the infant\'s body (when the area ought to be on the underwriter) utilizing the infant\'s hands to sign on the grown-up\'s or tyke\'s body putting the tyke on the lap and confronting far from the mother marking on the question marking utilizing the protest marking greater than typical marking rehashed more regularly then ordinary sign keeps going longer than typical marking uncommon "child" signs as opposed to grown-up signs BSL Caretaker Speech

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Acquisition of phonetics Few weeks: cooing and sputtering, playing with sounds. Their capacities are obliged by physiological restrictions. 4 months: recognize [a] and [i], so their discernment abilities are great. 4-6 months: kids jibber jabber, assembling vowels and consonants. This is not a cognizant procedure! Explore different avenues regarding explanation 7-10 months: begins rehashed chattering. 10-12 months, kids deliver an assortment of discourse sounds. (indeed "remote" sounds)

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Acquisition of phonology Early stage: Unanalyzed syllables 15-21 months: words as a succession of phonemes. Dominance of sounds varying in particular elements (e.g., voicing) Duplicated syllables: mother, dada - CV is primary syllable structure. They decrease = banana  [ ] 2 syllable words Early dominance of sound forms (even in non-tone dialects) Perception precedes generation (\' fis " or " angle \'?) Phonological Processes

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Lexicon Begin with straightforward lexical things for individuals/sustenance/toys/creatures/body capacities Lexical Achievement: 1-2 years old 200-300 words (avg) 3 years old 900 words 4 years old 1500 words 5 years old 2100 words 6-7 years old 2500 words High school grad 40,000 – 60,000 words! "5,000 every year, 13 words a day" - Miller & Gildea

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But Don\'t Animals Know Words, Too? Yes, however… shouldn\'t something be said about… ? Simply (exceptionally) splendid versus simply (just) somewhat messy versus a simply (right) individual Blunt (dull) instrument versus limit (sharp) remark I was actually (which means allegorically) climbing the dividers. Cut (on) a stick versus cut (off) hair Cleave (together) versus separate (separated) Dust (evacuate) or clean (sprinkle) And what does inflammable mean?

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The obtaining of morphosyntax At around 12 months, youngsters start delivering words reliably. Single word stage (holophrastic organize): Name individuals, objects, and so on. A whole sentence is single word Two-word organize: Approximately 18-24 months Use reliable arrangement of word requests: N-V, A-N, V-N… With structure controlled by semantic connections agent+action (infant rest) possessor+possession (Mommy book) Telegraphic stage (just substance words)

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Word Inflections Function word groupings:

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Copulas before Progressives We see another steady example: Copula: am, is, are, as in I am a specialist created before dynamic: am, is, are, as in I am singing . Abbreviated copula: as in He\'s a bear preceded the abbreviated dynamic: He\'s strolling .

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Negative Formations Negatives 1 st arrange - connect no/not to start of sentence (in some cases at end) 2 nd organize – negatives show up amongst subject and verb ( don\'t remained at starting in objectives, however not can\'t ) 3 rd organize – appearance of no one/nothing & anyone/anything & conflicting utilization of "to be" verb is and helper "sham" do verb.

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Question Formations 1 st organize – wh-word put before rest of sentence: Where daddy go? 2 nd organize – expansion of an assistant verb: Where you will go? 3 rd organize – subject thing changes places with the helper: Where will you go?

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Acquisition of Semantics Concrete before dynamic: \'in/on\' before \'behind/in front\' Overextensions: Using "moon" for anything round Using "puppy" for any four-legged creatures Underextensions: "winged animal" may exclude \'pigeon\', and so on

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Reviewing Linguistic Stages 6-12 weeks: Cooing (googoo, sputtering, coocoo) 6 months: Babbling (baba, mom, dada) 8-9 months: Intonation designs 1-1.5 years: Holphrastic organize (single word) 2 years: Two-word arrange 2.5 years: Telegraphic stage 3,4 – 11 years: Fluent discourse w/blunders 12 years+: Fluent discourse

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What about Second Language Acquisition? L2

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Second Language Acquisition Differences from L1 procurement Teaching Methods

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Terms/Associations Native Language = L1 =1st Language, native language, heart dialect Second Language = L2 = Target Language or Learner Language Second Language Acquisition (SLA) Research explores how individuals accomplish capability in a dialect which is not their first language

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Differences amongst L1 and L2 Interlanguage contrasts/likenesses Equal exchange Same word arrange, words, vowels 2 to 1, 1 to 2 (parts) English his/her to Spanish su 1 to 0, 0 to 1 (new things) English must figure out how to include new determiners: El hombre es mortal, English learners of Spanish must figure out how to "overlook" the English "do" as a strained transporter Old 1 to New 1 (changes) English must learn new dispersion for French nasalized vowels.

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Mastering the L2 Is there a basic period for L2? For bona fide highlight maybe (Scovel 1999) Cognitive contemplations? Does formal/conceptual thought help or frustrate? Cognizant versus programmed learning

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