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For the rest of the course….


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For the rest of the course…. How do we explain democratic stability? Why is democracy the “only game in town” in some countries but not others? Different answers: Level of economic development Culture Institutions. Culture and Politics.
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For whatever is left of the course… How would we clarify equitable strength? Why is vote based system the "main amusement around the local area" in a few nations however not others? Distinctive answers: Level of monetary improvement Culture Institutions

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Culture and Politics Thought test: in the event that we took a political foundation (eg. popular government) indigenous to one nation and transplanted it to another nation with a totally diverse society , would that foundation play out the same way? Does culture make a difference?

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And society is? Political society = the arrangement of dispositions, convictions, and standards held by a populace toward legislative issues.

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And society is? States of mind = demeanors towards legislative issues (political pioneers, occasions, foundations, governments, approaches, and so on.). Illustrations: support for the administration, resilience for restricting perspective focuses, trust in political foundations, sentiments of political viability etc.

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And society is? Convictions: subjective thoughts regarding circumstances and end results. Illustration: the "domino hypothesis" in the 1950s.

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And society is? Standards: evaluative thoughts regarding the world, judgments about great and awful. Illustration: "Vote based system is great."

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Liberalism emerged in Western Europe reaction to feudalism, which was exceptionally progressive and included next to no social versatility. Feudalism = people helpless before the social order. Radicalism = people over social chain of importance.

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Liberalism's Key Norms The insurance of individual rights from intense gatherings and governments. Rivalry and contradiction versus concordance and collaboration. Resilience of dispute as opposed to unanimity. Libertarianism over chain of command. Society ought to have a different, shielded domain from the state.

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Liberalism and majority rule government Historically, radicalism was a point of reference to vote based system in Western Europe and the US. This has lead some to consider progressivism to be a vital condition for majority rule government.

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Liberalism and majority rule government Why? Standards like libertarianism and resilience of difference may enhance the nature of rivalry. Accentuation on individual rights may make greater part lead less alarming for minorities.

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Huntington's social contention Samuel Huntington: liberal standards are connected with a few religions (Protestantism) yet not others (Catholicism, Confucianism, Islam). No majority rules system where these "non-liberal" religions are found.

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Huntington's social contention Catholicism: various leveled, underscores a solitary, aggregate great. Values congruity and accord. Confucianism: power, pecking order, duty, agreement. Considers struggle to be hazardous. Blends state and society. Islam: rejects detachment of religion and state.

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Huntington's social contention: issues Religions and societies are rapid, not static. All religions have viewpoints that adjust with liberal standards and others that repudiate them. Accord building might be as imperative to majority rule government as rivalry. What's more, the experimental record is awful!

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Liberalism and Democracy Do we toss the infant out with the bathwater? Regardless of the possibility that we don't purchase Huntington, maybe particular liberal standards – eg. resilience – none-the-less matter for fair union?

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Political Tolerance in Great Britain, the United States, Russia, and South Africa

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Liberalism and Democracy But what starts things out, the chicken or the egg? Vote based system or progressivism, radicalism or popular government? Will living in a solid majority rule government instruct individuals to be liberal? All the more for the most part: relationship is not the same as causation! Because x and y are regularly discovered together, doesn't mean x causes y. Perhaps y causes x?

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The Civic Culture: Almond &Verba Two segments: A participatory state of mind toward governmental issues. People esteem support and get to be included in their groups (not only their own particular limited self interest). Trust in other individuals and an eagerness to coordinate.

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The Civic Culture: Almond &Verba as opposed to "Flippant Familism." All steadfastness and trust is focused in the family. Individuals are not open vivacious: they don't take an interest in group life, are not educated about legislative issues, and so on. No trust of "pariahs," no ability to collaborate. Augment material, short-run favorable position of family.

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The Civic Culture: Almond &Verba Hypothesis: Civic Culture => Stable Democracy Amoral Familism => Unstable Democracy

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The Civic Culture: Almond &Verba Test: Measure community society in 5 nations that fluctuate in their level of majority rule soundness: High steadiness: US, GB Middle security: Germany Low solidness: Mexico, Italy Prediction: Civic culture high in US and GB, low in Mexico and Italy, direct in Germany.

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The Civic Culture: Almond &Verba Results: Hypothesis affirmed. Conclusion: Cultural states of mind => Stability of vote based system.

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The Civic Culture: Almond &Verba BUT: Couldn't the relationship run the other way? Maybe abnormal amounts of municipal society are an impact of stable organizations, not their cause! What's more, Perhaps both social qualities and majority rule security are brought about by something else, in particular, monetary advancement? All in all: connection is not the same as causation!!!

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The Civic Culture returned to: Putnam's Making Democracy Work Why does majority rules system function admirably in a few places yet not others? The Italian analysis: 15 indistinguishable local governments arranged in various financial and social settings. Would they perform in an unexpected way? Provided that this is true, why?

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The Civic Culture returned to: Putnam's Making Democracy Work truth be told: execution has been very fluctuated. Government in the north = great; government in the south = not all that great. The establishments are the same yet their execution shifts. WHY?

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Explanations for the contrast between the North and the South? Clarification One: Economic improvement. The North is rich, the South is poor. Clarification Two: Culture. City society is high in the North, low in the South. So which is it? Also, what causes what?

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Explanations for the distinction between the North and the South? Putnam: Culture. Why? Since the social contrasts saw in Northern Italy developed first , before the financial contrasts, and much sooner than the political ones.

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The chronicled contention . . . Medieval Italy: a period of incredible savagery and political agitation. Instability was a steady unavoidable truth. In the South: the arrangement was to reinforce the force of the lord, who could then secure the territory. In the North: the arrangement was self-administration and common guide and guard.

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The authentic contention . . . These diverse arrangements had a dependable effect on the social customs of the zones. A rich associational life prospered in the North, decayed in the South. Moreover, these social customs developed well before financial contrasts got to be settled in. Subsequently, culture went before governmental issues and financial matters.

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Okay, so why? Rich associational life ("social capital") => Solves aggregate activity issues. Rich associational life implies individuals interface more than once with each other, which helps them recognize and rebuff free-riders. Rich associational life likewise advances "standards of correspondence."

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Questions and Problems Cooperation may be great or awful for majority rules system. Not all associational life is made equivalent. Associational life has a dim side as well. Trust may not be so amazing. Radicalism: great government is established on doubt!