FREDERICK DOUGLASS .


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A standout amongst the most critical figures in America\'s battle for social liberties and racial equalityBorn into servitude around 1818, he in the long run got away and turned into a regarded American ambassador, an advocate to four presidents, an exceedingly respected speaker, and a powerful essayist. He finished the greater part of that with no formal training.
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FREDERICK DOUGLASS 1818 - 1895

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One of the most imperative figures in America\'s battle for social liberties and racial correspondence Born into subjugation around 1818, he inevitably got away and turned into a regarded American representative, a guide to four presidents, a profoundly respected speaker, and a powerful essayist. He finished the majority of that with no formal instruction

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NARRATIVE OF THE LIFE OF FREDERICK DOUGLASS AN AMERICAN SLAVE (1845)

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The Narrative portrays Douglas\' life from early adolescence until his escape from bondage in 1838 It turned into a moment smash hit in America and in addition in Europe, where it was converted into French and German. In spite of its basic and prominent approval, in any case, it was met with suspicion by proslavery Americans, who couldn\'t trust that such a splendid record could be delivered by a slave with no formal instruction. Some felt that the content was a sharp fake record created by abolitionists and go off as Douglass\' composition.

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CHAPTER 1 Like different personal histories, Douglass starts his story by tel l ing when and where he was conceived. However, this is unimaginable since slave proprietors keep slaves uninformed about their age and parentage so as to strip them of their characters Slaves decreased to the level of creatures: "Slaves know as meager of their ages as steeds know about theirs"

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He distinctively points of interest the physical brutalities exacted on slaves, including the assault of female slaves by white male proprietors Separation of mother and tyke is another way slave proprietors control their slaves, keeping slave kids from creating familial bonds, unwaveringness to another slave, and a learning of legacy and personality

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CHAPTER 2 Discusses the small sustenance and attire remittance given to slaves: "Youngsters from seven to ten yers old, of both genders, practically bare, may be seen all periods of the year" Children – nourished cornmeal mush from a trough on the ground, similar to pigs

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CHAPTER 3 Douglass was sent to inhabit colonel Lloyd\'s manor. Lloyd possessed around a thousand slaves, and was particularly eminent for his lovely garden, which individuals went numerous miles to see. It had a wealth of enticing organic products which were untouchable to the ravenous slaves, who were whipped in the event that they were discovered taking natural product. Douglass is understood that the quality of Colonel Lloyd\'s bequest was made conceivably just by the drudge of the slaves. Incidentally, slaves were never permitted to appreciate the their rewards for so much hard work. They were always kept hungry.

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The colonel additionally had a stable of astonishing steeds, which he unmistakably cherished more than his slaves. Slaves – under consistent observation Intimidated and mentally conditioned into trusting that their part is superior to anything it truly is.

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CHAPTER 6 Douglass demonstrates how subjection undermines the profound quality of whites. At first Mrs. Sophia Auld, his new escort, was a kind and productive individual, who treated Douglass like a certifiable person since she had never claimed a slave. In the first place, she didn\'t comprehend that instructing Douglass to peruse and compose would free his psyche. In any case, after her significant other disclosed to her that liberating Douglass\' psyche could lead her to losing her slave, she changed her state of mind. For whatever length of time that whites can keep slaves oblivious, they can control them.

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CHAPTER 7 Douglass put in around seven years in Master Hugh Auld\'s home and, in mystery, amid that time he figured out how to peruse and compose. He deceived neighboring children into showing him by giving them bread in return for lessons and working on composing replicating little Thomas\' books.

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Ironically, his capacity to peruse soon made him despondent, for it opened up a radical new-and pitiful world for him. Perusing daily papers, he understood the monstrosity of a people oppressed by intense white bosses He was just twelve years of age when he made plans to in the long run flee.

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In his collection of memoirs Douglass is not anticipated about how he figured out how to get away. He clarifies that his strategy for escape is still utilized by different slaves and in this way he does n o t need to broadcast it. In any case, he uncovers the points of interest of his escape in his third collection of memoirs, distributed 1881, saying that he obtained distinguishing proof papers from a companion, a free dark mariner, and just took the prepare to New York City.

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According to Douglass, the underground railroad (a composed arrangement of collaboration among abolitionists helping criminal slaves escape toward the North of Canada) ought to be known as the "upperground railroad". He respects "those great men and ladies for their honorable brave, and acclaims them for enthusiastically subjecting themselves to wicked oppression", however he is resolutely restricted to anybody uncovering the methods whereby slaves escape.

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The energy of being free is soon tempered by dejection and dread of being caught and hijacked. in the North, there are a lot of "man-seekers", who are anxious to take outlaw slaves back to their proprietors for an expense. Luckily, Douglass meets an abolitionist who encourages him to move to New Bedford, Massachusetts and take another name. "I gave Mr. Johnson the benefit of picking me a name, yet revealed to him he should not take from me the name of \'Frederick\'. I should clutch that, to safeguard a feeling of my personality"

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One of Douglass\' focal objectives is to expose the mythology of servitude. Southerners and a few Northerners held certain convictions about bondage which helped them support its reality.

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Some trusted that subjection was legitimate on the grounds that few entries from the Bible indicate the relatives of Ham (Noah\'s child) being bound for servitude (Genesis 9:18-27). It was trusted that God reviled Ham by transforming his skin dark and his relatives into slaves. For Southerners, consequently, the relatives of Ham were foreordained by the sacred writings to be slaves.

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Children of blended race parentage were constantly delegated slaves. On the off chance that the dull skin of Ham is said to be an indication of this revile, asks Douglass, then why are mullattos – some of whom have skin not huge ly darker than whites – additionally foreordained by birth to be slaves?

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Another myth held by Southerners was that Africans were mentally second rate and merited, or even required, the white man\'s care. It was, as British author Rudyard Kipling portrays, "the white man\'s weight" to colonize, edify, and christianize non-Europeans

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Douglass denounces both whites and African Americans who become tied up with this fradulent mythology. Slave proprietors and their managers are the law. Slaves live in consistent fear, frightened into subservience. The control of slaves requires finish physical, and additionally mental accommodation.

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The slave framework demoralizes solidarity among slaves. Proprietors urge slaves to sell out different slaves; a deceiver betrays Douglass and keeps his first escape endeavor. Keeping slaves intoxicated is additionally one method for keeping them servile .

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When proprietors of property passed on, got hitched, or changed their familial ties, their property frequently changed hands. Slaves were especially anxious of being sold to Georgia dealers on the grounds that in Georgia slaves were dealt with much more cruelly. Appraisers esteemed the slaves similarly they evaluated creatures.

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Douglass likewise censures the awful and boisterously bombastic Christianity of slave proprietors who at the same time violated the laws of God in their treatment of slaves – while affirming intense Christianity. The best wolves in sheep\'s clothing were the individuals who cited part and verse of their religion, yet were viciously pitiless to their slaves.

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He censures American chapels and priests for not standing in opposition to bondage. The FUGITIVE SLAVE ACT of 1850 legitimized criminal slave chasing in free states. Under this Act, even liberated African Americans could without much of a stretch be blamed for being outlaw slaves and taken toward the South. For Douglass, the Christian church which permits this law to stay essentially, is not so much a Christian church .

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SLAVERY IN THE UNITED STATES The primary African to land in the New World is accepted to have went with Christopher Columbus on one of his voyages to the Americas; African slaves started arriving not long after 1492. There are records of slaves being in Haiti by 1501. The main Africans touched base in the British settlements right around 200 years before Douglass was conceived. In Autust 1619 twenty Africans landed in Jamestown, Virginia, not as slaves but rather as agreements workers.

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However, the quantity of Africans in the states was moderately little all through the seventeenth century. At the finish of that century, Africans were conveyed to North A merica as slaves in bigger numbers. The foundation of substantial ranches in the South energized the import of African slaves who were considered more practical than contracted hirelings, and more ready to oppose European maladies than Native Americans.

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THE TRIANGLE TRADE ROUTE

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INHUMAN CONDITIONS ON SLAVE-TRADE SHIPS

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Because British law did not indicate the status of slaves, the settlers made their own slave codes, and these codes shifted from state to state. All in all, they denied social liberties to slaves, and discipline allotted to slaves was frequently harsher than that given to whites for a similar wrongdoing. In actuality, there were two distinctive lawful codes – one for whites, another for African Americans.

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Existence of two diverse lawful and good frameworks, one for whites and another for slaves. Executing a slave was not viewed as a wrongdoing by the courts nor by the group in Maryland.

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Throughout his life Douglass stayed near numerous Republican government officials, including President Grant and Abraham Lincoln, for whose decision cam

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