Generalizations .


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Address Overview. Generalization formationStereotype enactment and applicationStereotype change and regulationStereotype measure. Definition. Convictions around a covariation between some identity or demographic attributes and practices that impact social judgment. Generalizations may be sure, negative or nonpartisan. They may reflect reality or be one-sided (Krueger, Hassman,
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Generalizations

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Lecture Overview Stereotype development Stereotype enactment and application Stereotype change and control Stereotype measure

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Definition Beliefs about a covariation between some identity or statistic qualities and practices that impact social judgment. Generalizations might be certain, negative or unbiased. They may reflect reality or be one-sided (Krueger, Hassman, & Acevedo, 2003; Spears, 2002).

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Stereotype Formation Cognitive variables Affective elements

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Stereotype Formation Cognitive components Illusory connection: (memory or consideration predisposition) An inclination to see and remember co-event between occasional occasions (e.g. being minority, being forceful) Detection (and speculation) of covariation

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Illusory connection Hamilton & Gifford, 1976 Group A : 20 sentences (visit) Group B: 5 sentences (uncommon) Desirable practices: 20 sentences (visit) Undesirable practices: 5 sentences (uncommon) No relationship between\'s gathering enrollment and attribute.

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Illusory Correlation Rare (gathering B) + Rare (undesirable conduct) = SALIENCE ATTENTION MEMORY, JUDGMENT

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Detection of Covariation Cognitive variable Tendency to arrange occasions and to notice covariation. + Tendency to sum up this covariation past the experience. Prompts to elucidation to vague occasion .

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Detection of Covariation Hills, et al. 1990 Initial stage : Faces + individual profile. Facial elements and identity are associated. Next stage: Faces + uncertain profile Results: Unconscious convictions about relationship has been reinforced.

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Realistic Conflict Theory Affective component Limited assets prompt to struggle between gatherings Direct rivalry prompts to bias. Biases are higher when the employment market is rare. Monetary hardship – more savagery toward outgroup individuals.

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Scapegoat hypothesis Tendency to accuse outgroup individuals in the accomplished inconveniences. Torment plague – prompt to Jews massacres.

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In-gathering predisposition Minimal gathering worldview (Tajfel, 1982) Procedure Ss. separated into 2 aggregates by discretionary foundation. Klee style versus Kandinsky style Coin hurl DV: Money portion, states of mind

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Reason for the in-gathering predisposition Self-regard pick up.

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Outgroup homogeneity Perception that people in the outgroup are more like each other Quattrone & Jones, 1980 Ss. viewed an understudy who settled on a decision (kind of music). Ss\' own particular school versus another school DV: Predict what % of understudies of this school would settle on a similar decision.

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Reasons for outgroup homogeneity Less data about out-gathering individuals

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Stereotype support and initiation Priming of social classification Stereotype actuation Interpretations

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Devine, 1982 Procedure: Stage 1: Subliminal Priming: Stereotype-related words: Black, beat, Africa, ghetto, welfare, sluggish Stage 2:Judgment of vague conduct. (Donald) Results: Ss. judged the conduct as more threatening. Conclusion: African American idea initiates generalization of threatening vibe.

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Consequences of generalization actuation Activation is programmed and inescapable Effortful concealment and restraint is conceivable. (Devine, 1989)

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Stereotype support and initiation Self-satisfying prescience Expectations Our own particular practices Another individual\'s conduct

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Bargh, Chen, and Burrow, 1996 Procedure Tedious odd-even undertaking. Subliminal face introduction: dark versus white. Message around a blunder: Need to begin the assignment from the earliest starting point. DV: Videotaping of responses. Comes about: More threatening conduct in the wake of being presented to dark appearances.

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Stereotype measure Explicit Modern prejudice "It is straightforward the outrage of Black individuals in America" "In the course of recent years, Blacks have become more financially than they merit".

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Stereotype Measure Implicit IAT Priming Word-culmination errand

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Spencer, 1998 Procedure Bogus IQ test: positive versus negative criticism. Word-finishing undertaking BL _ K RI _ E Cognitively occupied (practice)/nothing Results: Positive criticism. Generalization initiation in "no occupied" condition Negative input: Stereotype actuation in both conditions.

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Spencer, 1998 Conclusion Stereotype enactment requires a few endeavors But despite everything it might be actuated when the assets are rare in specific circumstances.

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