GENOCIDE PREVENTION: The Role of Bystanders in Rwanda, Srebrenica and Darfur .


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2. College of Maastricht, Faculty of Law, Department International Law, Maastricht Center of Human Rights and University College Maastricht.University of Utrecht, Faculty of Humanities, Center for Conflict Studies, School of Human Rights Research. Seat of Pioom, Interdisciplinary Projects for the Study of Root Causes of Human Rights Violations, on the Causes of Gross Human Rights Violations
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GENOCIDE PREVENTION: The Role of Bystanders in Rwanda, Srebrenica and Darfur Studium Generale, Maastricht University, 21 September 2011 Fred Grünfeld

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University of Maastricht, Faculty of Law, Department International Law, Maastricht Center of Human Rights and University College Maastricht. University of Utrecht, Faculty of Humanities, Center for Conflict Studies, School of Human Rights Research. Seat of Pioom, Interdisciplinary Projects for the Study of Root Causes of Human Rights Violations, on the Causes of Gross Human Rights Violations Financially bolstered by the Horstman Foundation, Leader in the Dutch Resistance development amid the Second World War.

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OUTLINE 1. What is Genocide ? 2. What/who is the Bystander ? 3. Disappointment of Bystanders in Rwanda, Srebrenica and Darfur. 4. Appearances of Genocide - Survivors

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Levels of GHRV Scale 1: no political constraint, lead of law Scale 2: some political activists confront detainment (few influenced) Scale 3: confinement without trial happens, subjective captures, political imprisonment and homicides Scale 4: extreme suppression by murder, torment and vanishings for political adversaries, yet viciousness still chiefly against political supposition Scale 5: entire populace confronts the most extreme restraint, no restrictions on the way to seek after individual/ideological objectives

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Conflict Intensity High-Intensity Conflict: equipped clash creating more than 1000 passings for every year Low-Intensity Conflict: furnished clash creating between 100-1000 passings for each year Violent Political Conflict: outfitted clash creating under 100 passings for each year

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Gross Human Rights Violations Genocide Crimes against Humanity War Crimes (IHL) Disappearances Torture Ethnic Cleansing Widespread and methodical assault (now perceived as a \'weapon of war\'; additionally culpable as Genocide taking after choices at the ICTR)

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Legal Distinctions Genocide: … any of the accompanying demonstrations perpetrated with plan to obliterate , in entire or to some extent , a national, ethnical, racial or religious gathering , thusly : Killing; Causing genuine substantial or mental mischief; Deliberately delivering on the gathering states of life figured to realize its physical decimation; Imposing measures expected to avoid births; Forcibly exchanging offspring of the gathering to another gathering. (Article 6 Rome Statute)

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Destruction Genocide is the consider devastation of a particular gathering Destruction due to their introduction to the world, their reality, their being Not a direct result of their perspectives, assessments or activities

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Raphael Lemkin 1900-1959 GENOS implies in Greek "race" or "tribe" CIDE implies in Latin "murdering" Churchill: Crimes without a name Crime of all Crimes, the most genuine

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Deliberate demolition Genocide is the think, arranged and orderly obliteration of a particular gathering of individuals: SPECIFIC GROUP BY THE STATE WITH INTENT Politicide alludes to political rivals (democide both yet barring war)

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Five phases of Repression by Hilberg Shutting off the supply of data for all outcasts Restricting support to those with learning Prohibiting feedback by untouchables Absence of open discuss procedure of constraint and pulverization Killings however utilizing euphimism (last arrangement, auf Transport nach Osten)

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Article 2: Genocide implies any of the accompanying demonstrations perpetrated with expectation to wreck, in entire or to a limited extent, a national, ethnical, racial or religious gathering, thusly: ( a ) Killing individuals from the gathering; ( b ) Causing genuine substantial or mental mischief to individuals from the gathering; ( c ) Deliberately exacting on the gathering states of life ascertained to achieve its physical decimation in entire or to some degree; ( d ) Imposing measures proposed to forestall births inside the gathering; ( e ) Forcibly exchanging offspring of the gathering to another gathering.

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meanings of genocide "a type of uneven mass slaughtering in which a state or other expert expects to annihilate a gathering, as that gathering and participation in it are characterized by the culprit ." Frank Chalk and Kurt Jonassohn "the mass executing of considerable quantities of individuals ... under states of the basic vulnerability and weakness of the victims." Israel Charny "sustained intentional activity by a culprit to physically decimate a collectivity specifically or in a roundabout way , through ban of the organic and social generation of gathering individuals, managed paying little mind to the surrender or absence of danger offered by the victim." Helen Fein "the advancement and execution of arrangements by a state or its specialists which result in the passings of a generous part of a gathering ...[when] the defrauded gatherings are characterized principally as far as their common qualities, i.e., ethnicity, religion or nationality." Barbara Harff and Ted Gurr "Genocide is not outrageous war or strife; it is extraordinary rejection . Avoidance may begin with ridiculing, however may end with a gathering of individuals being prohibited from a general public to the point where they are devastated." James M. Smith

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GENOCIDE CONVENTION Article 3: The accompanying demonstrations might be culpable: ( a ) Genocide; ( b ) Conspiracy to confer genocide; ( c ) Direct and open impelling to submit genocide; ( d ) Attempt to submit genocide; ( e ) Complicity in genocide.

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Seven phases by Lecomte 1. meaning of the objective gathering 2. enrollment of the casualties 3. assignment of the casualties 4. seizure of merchandise 5. avoidance from working exercises 6. methodical disconnection 7. mass eradication All phases in the Holocaust and in Rwanda

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Holocaust Studies and Genocide Studies Un-precendented and Total Exterminalist hostile to semitism As paradigme Repeated additionally to some degree War Crimes and Crimes against Humanity Victim situated or point of view of culprit and spectator included of societal change (Weimar, 30s)

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Eight Stages of Genocide by Stanton Classification – us and them Symbolization – yellow star of David Dehumanization – detest radio Organization – unique armed force units Polarization – hushing the direct Preparation – detachment of the casualties Extermination – mass killing, genocide Denial – conceal confirm

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Denial of Genocide Armenian Genocide Nowadays Politics More than 90 years back

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Genocides in Rwanda, Srebrenica, Darfur Why did the global onlookers neglect to act to counteract or to stop the genocides in Rwanda, Srebrenica and Darfur? How might the worldwide spectator have possessed the capacity to act with the accessible instruments? Why were every one of the notices not converted without hesitation or, all the more absolutely, what are the purposes behind non-activity or the insufficiency of the activity that was embraced?

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C Bystanders The Atrocity Triangle A Perpetrators B Victims

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Each case 1. Notices 2. INSTRUMENTS 3. Basic leadership

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DARFUR

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DEATH TOLL Rwanda 1994 800,000 in 100 days = 8,000 a day Srebrenica 1995 8,000 in 5 days = 1,600 a day Darfur 2003-2010 300,000 in 2555 days = 117 a day

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RESPONSIBILITY TO PROTECT 1: Before Prevent 2: During React 3: After Rebuild

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EARLY WARNING

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NEVER AGAIN EARLY WARNING DOES NOT LEAD AUTOMATICALLY TO EARLY ACTION OR ANY ACTION AT THE MOMENT WHEN DECISIONS ARE MADE, PREVIOUS NEVER AGAINS ARE FORGOTTEN

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WARNINGS + INSTRUMENTS BOTH IN RWANDA AND IN SREBRENICA AND IN DARFUR: WARMINGS WERE AVAILABLE INSTRUMENTS WERE AVAILABLE THIRD PARTIES (BYSTANDERS) COULD HAVE PREVENTED IN BOTH CASES THE GENOCIDE

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C Bystanders The Atrocity Triangle A Perpetrators B Victims

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The bystander:the outsider that won\'t demonstration or that won\'t endeavor to act in solidarity with the casualties of gross human rights infringement. A short time later FOUR ROLES: PERPETRATORS AND VICTIMS COLLABORATORS AND RESCUERS IN THE END

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DVD The Faces of Genocide 20 minutes

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MAIN CONCLUSIONS ON Warning IN RWANDA 1. Abhor PROPAGANDA PRIOR TO GENOCIDE PUNISHED AS INCENTIVE TO GENOCIDE WEAKER MANDATE UNAMIR THAN NEEDED BECAUSE OF FEASABILITY OUTSPOKEN RELIABLE EARLY WARNINGS NOT FORWARDED TO SC ANY DECISION-MAKING BY SC WAS PRECLUDED \'the withholding of this data from the individuals from the security board by the un administration blocked any security chamber choice in this field \'.

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AVAILABLE INSTRUMENTS IN RWANDA 2. THE OPTION TO LINK THE EVACUATION FORCE WITH UNAMIR WAS NOT CONSIDERED IN ANY WESTERN CAPITAL OR AT THE UN. RIZA – UN TOP OFFICIAL - WAS NOT PREPARED ON APRIL 14 TO PROPOSE AN ENFORCEMENT POWER TO SC (DUTCH ARCHIVES). SC VOTED UNANIMOUSLY FOR FORCE REDUCTION TO 270 PERSONS ON April 21.

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CONTINUING MAIN CONCLUSIONS 3. Commanding TRUST IN PRESIDENT AND PEACE PROCESS SHIFT IN PERCECEPTION NEEDED FROM PROMOTING PEACE TO EMERGING GENOCIDE

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MAIN CONCLUSIONS ON WARNING IN SREBRENICA 1. In May 2005 SC Members and UN Officials thought about proposed Serbian Attack yet they didn\'t impart this data to the Dutch. A protection military implementation assault was prohibited by the UN and the significant powers No SC wrangle on keeping up safe range Srebrenica

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AVAILABLE INSTRUMENTS IN SREBRENICA 2. NORDIC peacekeepers fruitful with tanks to stop Serbian attacker in safe range at Tuzla. DUTCH peacekeepers missed military implementation control as well as they didn\'t attempt in any capacity to dissuade or oppose Serbian animosity. NATO AIR support was accessible however not utilized right now of the assault on Srebrenica.

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LESSONS LEARNED RECOGNITION OF ANNAN OF MISTAKES IN PERCEPT

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