Global Exchange.

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Studies the relationship in the middle of financial matters and governmental issues (Gilpin 1975) ... US prohibition on Mexican fish, Canada prerequisite of reusable brew compartments. Liberal Trade ...
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Worldwide Trade

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Exam: Concepts from Student Presentation Security Council Reform Why is SC change on the UN plan? Which four nations are considered for perpetual enrollment? CEDAW Convention: Is the US a signatory? Why? Part in Women\'s Rights Issues ICC: When was it built up? What sort of wrongdoings does it arraign? Is the US a gathering and why? Are EU nations parties? Likenesses and contrasts with tribunals (Yugoslavia, Rwanda) Terrorism: approach choices for managing worldwide fear based oppression; upsides and downsides of each;

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Political Economy Studies the relationship amongst financial aspects and legislative issues (Gilpin 1975) Politics shape the structure of monetary exchanges Economic exercises create and redistributes riches Reshapes influence and governmental issues among gatherings

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Logic of Economic Liberalism Adams Smith (1723-1790) and David Ricardo (1772-1823) Gains from exchange Comparative favorable position Specialization and economies of scale Trade: expend more at a lower value Gains from exchange regular however deviated

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Mercantilism: Trade fills political needs Accumulate surplus and cash Augment military influence Marxism Capital additions from business sectors and exchange while work is abused Market driven dominion Dependency of the South toward the North Historical Alternatives

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Levels Trade Openness

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Autarky Albania 1970s, 1980s Communist nation Broke rang with the USSR and the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA) Strategy of confidence Largely shut to exchange Outcomes: mechanical backwardness, neediness, wastefulness, debilitated influence

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Protectionism Protect certain household ventures from outside rivalry Objectives Self-adequacy and security (horticulture, military gear) Protect newborn child industry Predictability, less reliance, social solidness Satisfy political anterooms Respond to savage dumping with respect to exchanging accomplices Generate direct government income (if taxes utilized)

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Protectionist Instruments Quotas on material imports; Multifibre Arrangement (1974) Tariffs US levies more than 9%: canned fish, solidified squeezed orange, elastic footwear, non-athletic ladies\' footwear, earthenware tiles, and so on. Endowments U.S. government support for sugar stick, cotton, corn sponsorships Korean steel and gadgets 1980s Other non-tax obstructions: EU restriction on hormone-treated hamburger, US prohibition on Mexican fish, Canada necessity of reusable brew compartments

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Liberal Trade Policies Reduce levies Eliminate/decrease non-levy hindrances "Washington Consensus"

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Conditions for an Open World Order

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Hegemonic Stability Theory Interests and power shape exchanging administrations Hegemonic states as underwriters of organized commerce Gain most Less defenseless against social disturbance Less helpless against swindling Power to influence others to join Examples?

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Liberal Institutionalism Robert Keohane: After Hegemony (1986) Even hegemonic states need establishments to accomplish correspondence and lessen exchange costs Institutions are "sticky:" hold on even after decay of hegemon, or regardless of transient enthusiasm of the hegemon Examples?

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US Steel Tariffs US: forces 30% steel taxes in 2002 EU tested the US in the WTO rules against steel duties in 2003 President Bush evacuated the taxes in 2004. Why?

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Liberalism and Domestic Politics Trade redistributes riches Creates washouts and champs: Consumers win Import-contending segments free; send out areas win Does work free or win? Who looses and who wins from higher steel levies?

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Trade Institutions The GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade), 1947 Facilitate transactions to diminish levies and NTBs Average taxes dropped from 40% of the merchandise\'s worth in 1945 to 3% of the merchandise\'s quality in 2002 "Rounds" of arrangements -The Kennedy cycle (1960s) -Doha Round (2001) under the WTO Dispute determination component

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The WTO (World Trade Organization), 1995 Replaced GATT International association with a staff of around 500 Expanded menu of participation Trade in administrations, licensed innovation rights Adjudicates question Trade and environment, work rights, human rights Trade Institutions

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WTO: Current Issues

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Current Issues: Agricultural Trade Developing nations – relative favorable position in rural items Industrial nations – overwhelming rural sponsorships The Doha (2001) round and the street ahead? Arrangements separated in Cancun EU confronts weights for inner change of the Common Agricultural Policies But progression contradicted by solid household anterooms in mechanical nations What to do?

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Intellectual Property Rights Piracy of programming, music, movies … WTO: International Treaty on Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) (1994) Issues of household implementation Patents on medications and biotechnology hostile HIV/AID drugs

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