Government Lands.

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Voyageurs National Park. Contains 218,054 sections of land - 134,265 sections of land of area and 83,789 sections of land ... The Political Geography of National Parks (Pacific History Review 2004) ...
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Elected Lands

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The Production Spectrum

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Government Influence on the Production of Goods and the Provision of Services Public Private Under intimidation Regulation Financial Incentive – tax assessment, advance, base development (water medicines, sewers, streets) 2. Without any compulsion – "free market" There ain\'t no such thing as a free lunch (TANSLAAFL)

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Minnesota Recreation

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Surface Cover in the United States

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The Dynamic of Public and Private Lands Public terrains and private grounds speak to the closures of a range that portray how merchandise are delivered and how administrations are given Decisions about open terrains are reflected in the choices about private grounds Goods created from the general population lands and the administrations gave by open terrains speak to the result of a few level headed discussions about the part and obligation of government  Rarely does a session of Congress not institute enactment, either to pass on or to secure title to a package of area LexisNexis Congressional

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Paradigm for Public Lands Public terrains are not chronicled mishaps They speak to the results of choices that we have all in all made to deliver merchandise and give administrations from area claimed by government as opposed to exclusive grounds Federal grounds reflect choices to deliver products and give administrations from terrains claimed by the government

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Federal Lands 31.1% of the surface territory – 703 million sections of land – of the United States Lands or enthusiasm for grounds claimed by the government Administered by an assortment of offices Public space lands – never left elected proprietorship obtained in return for open space lands or for the timber on open area lands Acquired terrains – bought, denounced, gave, or traded Land to which the central government does not completely own Lands on the Outer Continental Shelf and grounds held for the advantage of American Indians are not classed as "public land"

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Federal Lands Since the target of elected household strategy was to privatize the country\'s property surface why does the elected government still have title to around 33% of it? Keep in mind In the eighteenth & nineteenth hundreds of years people moved into a generally uninhabited mainland inside because of elected arrangement went for making and advancing private landownership

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Alienation of Minnesota\'s Land Surface

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Land Ownership in Minnesota

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Rural Uses National Park System National Forests National Grasslands Wilderness Areas National Wildlife Refuges Dams and Reservoirs Army Corps of Engineers Bureau of Reclamation Urban Uses Federal Courthouses Customs & Immigration Posts Post Offices Flood Control Structures The Minneapolis Federal Reserve Building VA Hospitals EPA labs Fort Snelling National Cemetery Bureau of Mines property Federal Buildings in Minnesota (GSA) Major Uses of Federal Land

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Federal Lands Majority in the West Federal government once claimed as much as 80% of the surface zone however discarded 1.1 billion sections of land to people, organizations and states Four offices oversee 96% of the elected area USDA Forest Service (1905) Bureau of Land Management (1946) Fish and Wildlife Service (1940) National Park Service (1916) Each of these has its own central goal and obligations regarding dealing with the terrains Each has obtained title to arrive all through its presence

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The Department of the Interior oversees 445 million surface sections of land, including 56 million sections of land of grounds held in trust for American Indians Much of this grounds are situated in isolated administration units 379 national parks 74 national landmarks 521 untamed life shelters 742 dams Includes 57,000 structures The Bureau of Land Management 264 million sections of land of area ca. 12% aggregate surface zone - 40% of every elected land essentially situated in the 11 western states and Alaska Descendant of the General Land Office – the elected land organization 1812-1946

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The Minerals Management Service (Dept of the Interior) 560 million sections of land of subsurface mineral assets all through the nation 3 billion sections of land of Outer Continental Shelf lands containing characteristic gas, oil, and other mineral assets 42 million sections of land of the OCS under lease supply around 27% of the regular gas and roughly 20% of the oil delivered in the United States Obama to Open Offshore Areas to Oil Drilling for First Time (New York Times) Collects and dispenses incomes from such rents and inland mineral leases on Federal and Indian grounds

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Federal Lands Administered by an assortment of offices Administered for an assortment of purposes Acquired by the central government at various times and in various ways

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Rural Lands – Forests, Parks, Wildlife Refuges

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Military Bases

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1796-1934 Privatizing land the vital goal 1796-1812  Early endeavors to privatize land under Congressional supervision 1812-1946  Privatizing land - the elected land office the General Land Office 1812-1862  Land as a wellspring of income 1862-1935  Land as an appropriation for settlement - residence, railroads, and so forth 1872  Yellowstone National Park set up 1891 President approved to hold woods arrive still in elected proprietorship 1906 President approved to secure ancient pieces on elected area

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1796-1934 Privatizing land the important target 1911   Weeks Act, permitting the USDA to gain exclusive cutover forestland for watershed purposes 1924   Clarke-McNary Act , permitting the USDA to get cutover forestland for ranger service exhibit purposes 1934  The Taylor Grazing Act finishing privatization as a rule 1946 The Bureau of Land Management set up as successor to the General Land Office to oversee lands claimed by the national government and not saved 261 million sections of land of area, basically in the 12 Western States and Alaska

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Major Legislation 1872 Yellowstone National Park (16 USC 21 et seq) 1891 Forest Reserve Act 1906 Antiquities Act (16 USC 431 et seq) 1911 Weeks Act (16 USC 552 note) 1916 National Park Service Organic Act (16 USC 1 note) 1924 Clarke-McNary Act (June 7, 1924, ch. 348, 43 Stat. 653) 1934 Taylor Grazing Act (16 USC 315 note) 1960 Multiple-Use Sustained-Yield Act of 1960 (16 USC 528 note) 1964 Wilderness Act (16 USC 1131 et seq) 1976 Federal Land Policy and Management Act (16 USC 1701 et seq)

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Question of Jurisdiction Nowhere extensively ordered Article 1 Section 8 (Jurisdictional provision) The Congress might have Power to practice restrictive Legislation in all Cases at all, over such District (not surpassing ten Miles square) as may, by Cession of specific States, and the Acceptance of Congress, turn into the Seat of the Government of the United States, and to practice like Authority over all Places bought by the Consent of the Legislature of the State in which the Same should be , for the Erection of Forts, Magazines, Arsenals, dock-Yards, and other needful Buildings

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Minnesota Statutes 1.042 (Laws 1943 c 343) Subdivision 1. The assent of the State of Minnesota is given as per the Constitution of the United States, Article I, Section 8, Clause 17, to the securing by the United States in any way of any area or right or enthusiasm for area in this state required for locales for traditions houses, courthouses, doctor\'s facilities, asylums, post workplaces, penitentiaries, reformatories, prisons, ranger service warehouses, supply houses, or workplaces, aeronautics fields or stations, radio stations, military or maritime camps, bases, stations, munititions stockpiles, stops, terminals, cantonments, stockpiling places, target ranges, or whatever other military or maritime motivation behind the United States Subd. 3. Conditions and reservations. The privilege of the state to bring about its common and criminal procedure to be executed in any surrendered land or place is saved to the state.  The state likewise claims all authority to force the accompanying assessments ....

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Piecemeal obtaining of the terrains, piecemeal procurement of purview Voyageurs National Park Federal Legislation (Pub. L. 91–661, Jan. 8, 1971, 84 Stat. 1970; 16 USC 160 et seq) Minnesota Statutes 84B.061 (Laws 1995 c.124) Minnesota Statutes 1.045  (Laws 1995 c.124)

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Voyageurs National Park Contains 218,054 sections of land - 134,265 sections of land of area and 83,789 sections of land of water Authorized on January 8, 1971 (16 USC 160 et seq) The Secretary of the Interior is approved to set up the Voyageurs National Park in the State of Minnesota, by production of notification to that impact in the Federal Register at such time as the Secretary esteems adequate interests in grounds or waters have been gained for organization … . Formally settled on April 8 1975 (40 FR 15921) National Park Service Site Voyageurs National Park Association Snowmobile Restrictions in Voyageurs NP Minnesota Statutes 2005 The Political Geography of National Parks (Pacific History Review 2004)

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Federal grounds include two gatherings Lands the central government has constantly possessed – lands that were never sold or conceded to people, companies, or states never offered under the elected area statutes – studied after 1891 when the President was approved to set up backwoods holds and in this manner saved as woods, parks, landmarks, natural life asylums never obtained by people, enterprises, or states – considered "worthless" B. Lands that the government reacquired in the wake of having passed on them to people, partnerships, or states gained deliberately – by buys, trades, gifts procured automatically – by judgment, appropriation, insolvency proceedin

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