GPS and Remote Detecting.

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GPS gives uniquely coded satellite flags that can be prepared in a GPS collector, empowering the recipient to register position, speed and time. ...
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GPS and Remote Sensing Lecture 20 April 7, 2004

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Why GPS and RS in GIS? GPS and remote detecting symbolism are essential GIS information sources, and are critical GIS information sources. GPS information makes focuses (positions), polylines, or polygons Remote detecting symbolism and airphotos are utilized as significant premise map as a part of GIS Information digitized or arranged from symbolism are GIS layers

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Globe Positioning System (GPS) GPS is a Satellite Navigation System GPS is subsidized and controlled by the U. S. Branch of Defense (DOD). While there are numerous a huge number of common clients of GPS around the world, the framework was intended for and is worked by the U. S. military. GPS gives extraordinarily coded satellite flags that can be handled in a GPS collector, empowering the beneficiary to process position, speed and time. No less than 4 satellites are utilized to gauge 4 amounts: position in 3-D (X, Y, Z) and GPSing time (T) 20,000 km

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Space Segment The ostensible GPS Operational Constellation comprises of 24 satellites that circle the earth in 12 hours. There are regularly more than 24 operational satellites as new ones are dispatched to supplant more seasoned satellites. The satellite circles rehash just about the same ground track (as the earth turns underneath them) once every day. The circle elevation is such that the satellites rehash the same track and design over any point roughly every 24 hours (4 minutes prior every day). There are six orbital planes, with ostensibly four SVs (Satellite Vehicles) in each, similarly separated (60 degrees separated), and slanted at around fifty-five degrees as for the tropical plane. This star grouping gives the client somewhere around five and eight SVs noticeable from any point on the earth.

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Control Segment The Master Control office is situated at Schriever Air Force Base (previously Falcon AFB) in Colorado. These screen stations measure signals from the SVs which are fused into orbital models for every satellites. The models figure exact orbital information (ephemeris) and SV clock redresses for every satellite. The Master Control station transfers ephemeris and clock information to the SVs. The SVs then send subsets of the orbital ephemeris information to GPS beneficiaries over radio signs.

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User Segment The GPS User Segment comprises of the GPS collectors and the client group. GPS recipients change over SV signals into position, speed, and time gauges. GPS beneficiaries are utilized for route, situating, time dispersal, and other exploration.

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Coordinate framework and stature GPS utilize the WGS 84 as datum Various direction frameworks are accessible for picked GPS tallness (h) alludes to ellipsoid surface, so it is a little contrast from the genuine topographic tallness (H). the distinction is the geoid stature (N), the inexact Mean Sea Level. Some more up to date GPS units now give the H by utilizing the condition H=h (N from an all inclusive characterized geoid – Geoid99 ) H: topographic stature or orthometric tallness h: ellipsoid tallness N: geoid tallness H = h - N

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GPS situating administrations determined in the Federal Radionavigation Plan PPS (exact situating administration) for US and Allied military, US government and common clients. Precision: -22 m Horizontal exactness -27.7 m vertical exactness -200 nanosecond time (UTC) precision SPS (standard situating administration) for common clients worldwide without charge or limitations: -100 m Horizontal precision -156 m vertical precision -340 nanosecond time (UTC) precision DGPS (differential GPS methods) right inclination mistakes at one area with measured predisposition blunders at a known position. A reference beneficiary, or base station, figures redresses for every satellite sign. - Differential Code GPS (route): 1-10 m exactness -Differential Carrier GPS (survey):1 mm to 1 cm precision

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DGPS The thought behind differential GPS: We have one recipient measure the planning blunders and afterward give rectification data to alternate beneficiaries that are wandering around. That way basically all mistakes can be disposed of from the framework (Because if two recipients are genuinely near each other, say inside a couple of hundred kilometers, the signs that achieve them two will have gone through for all intents and purposes the same cut of air, thus will have practically the same blunders) constant transmission DGPS or post-handling DGPS reference stations set up by The United States Coast Guard and other universal organizations regularly transmit mistake redress data on the radio signals that are as of now set up for radio course finding (as a rule in the 300kHz territory). Anybody in the territory can get these amendments and fundamentally enhance the exactness of their GPS estimations. Numerous new GPS collectors are being intended to acknowledge adjustments, and some are even furnished with inherent radio recipients. on the off chance that you don\'t require exact situating quickly (continuous). Your recorded information can be converged with redresses recorded at a reference recipient (through web) for a later tidy up.

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Project errands can regularly be ordered by required exactnesses which will decide hardware cost.

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Remote Sensing Basics Using electromagnetic range to picture the area, sea, and air. When you listen to the radio, or cook supper in a microwave stove, you are utilizing electromagnetic waves. When you take a photograph, you are really doing remote detecting

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Remote detecting stages

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Passive Remote Sensing Active Remote Sensing E. transmission, gathering, and pre-preparing F. preparing, elucidation and investigation G. examination and application A. the Sun: vitality source C. target D. sensor: getting and/or vitality source

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Major Passive: Multi-Spectral Sensors LANDSAT MSS/TM/ETM+ (NASA, USA ) SPOT-1, - 2, - 3 ( France ) JERS-1 (optical sensor) ( Japan ) MODIS (NASA, USA ) AVHRR (NOAA, USA ) ASTER (NASA, USA , and Japan ) IRS-1A, - 1B, - 1C, 1D ( India ) IKONOS (Space Imaging, USA ) Hyper-Spectral Sensor AVIRIS (NASA, USA ) HyMap ( Australia )

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Major Active: Radar Sensor SIR-A, - B, - C (NASA, USA ) RADARSAT ( Canada ) JERS-1 (radar sensor) ( Japan ) ERS-1 ( European ) AIRSAR/TOPSAR (NASA, USA ) NEXRAD (NOAA, USA ) TRMM (NASA, USA ) Lidar Sensor ALTMS (TerraPoint, USA ) FLI-MAP (John Chance, USA ) ALTM ( USA ) TopoEye ( USA ) ATLAS ( USA )

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Spectrum Visible Near Infrared Thermal Infrared Bands 8 Resolution (m) 15, 30, 60 NASA Landsat-7 (ETM+) propelled 4/15/1999 705 km

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Terra satellite dispatched on 12/18/1999 Spectrum Visible Near Infrared Thermal Infrared Bands 36 Resolution (m) 250, 500, 1000 705 km

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N. & S. American Eastern Pacific Europe and Africa Jap. Aus. W. Paci C. Asia, India Ocean China, India Ocean Global Geostationary Satellites Earth span 6,370 km Satellite height 35,800 km

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Soil dampness Surface temperture and albedo ET Rainfall Snow and Ice Water quality Vegetation spread Land use Image preparing and demonstrating The extent of a phone we call picture determination, contingent upon… Such as 1 m, 30 m, 1 km, or 4 km Image handling and displaying

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