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Slide 1

Target Grading of Four-Mallet Marimba Literature The Performance Level System Dr. Julia Gaines Assistant Professor of Percussion School of Music University of Missouri

Slide 2

Research Background Percussion Pedagogy DMA Document - Percussion Techniques Class Sent survey to 2000 ebb and flow band executives inquiring as to whether the percussion methods class they took in school was useful for their showing Resulted in a 30-day address plot which included data proposed by at work band chiefs MSHSAA Prescribed Music List President of MOPAS - accused part of aggregating complete database of pieces on the PGML with proposals for expulsion or maintenance on the rundown Finally, in summer of 2008, proposals for evacuation were made; recommendations for increments start this next summer finish database of data on each piece (approx. 500) is accessible on MOPAS section site

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Current Research Project 3 rd Project Examine the four-hammer marimba collection and recognize trouble levels that extend the flow evaluating framework (starting, moderate, progressed) with the reason for making an educationally supportive posting of writing

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Why? – Two Personal Observations 1. Absence of Quality Pedagogical Information Too frequently, starting understudies (especially at the secondary school level) don\'t take after a proper collection succession to fundamentally propel the level of execution on the instrument Repertoire is static - playing similar pieces 2008 MSHSAA area/state appearances – 20/90 (over 20% of marimba performances were a similar piece) 2. Insufficient quality writing toward the start and halfway trouble levels (quality frequently rises up out of amount)

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1. Absence of Quality Pedagogical Information Publisher/Distributor Online Catalogs Provide data suitable to offering a bit of music - business inclination skews data Reviews - official (PAS) and informal (individual sites) Provide individual supposition with respect to any number of angles in a bit of music - subjective and problematic (some great and some awful)

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First Example Yellow After The Rain by Mitchell Peters One of the most prominent four-hammer marimba bits ever YouTube recordings - 37 exhibitions Mexican Dances (38), Rosauro marimba concerto (51), and Rhythm Song (66) 2008 MSHSAA area/state appearances – 20/90 (over 20% of marimba performances were a similar piece)

Slide 7

Online Information Official Review PAS Review Library "This is an unaccompanied solo for marimba requiring four-hammer system. Both chordal and "rocker" systems are utilized in the treatment of the four hammers" (1972) From www.pas.org

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Distributor Steve Weiss Music Product Rating: 5 stars Date Posted: 2006-06-23 10:15:31 Posted By: Nathan Piazza Comments: Yellow After The Rain is fundamentally THE Beginning Marimba Solo. A bit exaggerated to the point of practically being adage maybe, however a decent piece in any case. An awesome piece to begin on for the apprentice, or to study and use as practice for the more moderate understudy, as it addresses a considerable measure of specialized issues. Item Rating: 5 stars - Awesome Date Posted: 2006-12-16 00:52:42 Posted By: Austin Meade Comments: This is an amazing solo for jr. high understudies (which i am). i will play this performance for our performance rivalry in february.

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Personal Online Library Composer: Mitchell Peters Publisher: Composer Media Type: Score Copyright Year: 1971 Length: 6 Minutes Primary Instrumentation: 4.0 Marimba Must Have Difficulty: 4.5 of 11 (in light of level in school) (11 = Graduate understudy) Number of Performers: 1 Suggested Performance Venue: Undergraduate Audition Brief Review This piece is unmistakably the standard four-hammer marimba soul changing experience for all understudies in college percussion courses. About each percussionist and their canine has concentrated this piece (or its nearby cousin, "Sea Refractions"). One could compose volumes about how Yellow After The Rain has been played, ought to be played, its history, its effect - and undoubtedly numerous percussionists have.

Slide 10

Wikipedia Yellow After the Rain is an arrangement for solo marimba, composed by previous LA Philharmonic essential percussionist Mitchell Peters. Subsides supposedly composed the work for his own particular private understudies, for whom he was not able find musically intriguing material that presented four-hammer procedures. [citation needed] The work is modular and utilizes numerous fundamental aptitudes, presented in a consecutive way. After a metrically misleading presentation, the primary topic is expressed in the correct hand, with left hand backup. This is instantly trailed by a rehash of the song with the left hand assuming control over the tune and the correct hand expecting the accompanimental part. All through, the entertainer can keep up a predictable interim in the backup (parallel P4). Chordal moves shape a move to the work\'s energizing "B" area, which uses single autonomous strokes with every hand settled in the interim of an immaculate fifth. The consistency of these interims permits the entertainer to focus on the wrist and hand movements required in the strokes without agonizing over changing the spatial relationship of the hammers. After a recap of the correct hand song, the topic is expressed in four-voice homorhythmic style, again keeping up the ideal fourth relationship (dispersed a noteworthy second separated). A brief coda closes the work. For all intents and purposes a whole era of marimbists has been acquainted with four-hammer procedures with this work, and it is likely that this legacy will proceed, even as an abundance of magnificent material goes along with it in the collection.

Slide 11

2. Requirement for Intermediate Literature Nancy Zeltsman – ZMF New Music www.newmusic.zmf.us/commissioningproject.cfm "One of the greatest deterrents confronting sprouting marimbists is the urgent absence of value marimba writing of middle of the road trouble. Bit by bit, we have amassed some superb marimba works however the vast majority of these are extremely troublesome both musically and in fact. Few pieces are accessible to get ready understudies for these difficulties. An understudy piano player may play works, for example, Clementi\'s Sonatinas , some of Chopin\'s Préludes , or Schumann\'s Scenes from Childhood (Kinderszenen) . Vladimir Horowitz performed music from the last in shows as a senior statesman. By correlation, no practically identical collection exists for marimba. Moderate Masterworks for Marimba intends to give awesome music to understudies that will likewise address show marimbists."

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Need for Intermediate Literature Julie Davila, 10 Four Mallet Marimba Solos for the Intermediate Marimbist (2006, Row-Loff) "An extensive bit of my showing profession has been committed to helping the middle of the road understudy build up their "aggregate percussion" aptitudes. Amid that time, I have noticed an obvious requirement for more marimba writing, particularly intended to address the issues of the middle of the road four-hammer understudy." Dr. Michael Gould (cite from front of above book) "Julie Davila\'s Impressions on Wood has filled in a truly necessary group of collection for middle of the road percussionists searching for short presentation pieces."

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Hypothesis There are less pieces composed for transitional players than there are for cutting edge, however there are more entertainers accessible to play moderate pieces. The outcome is that more pieces are being composed for the least number of entertainers.

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Numbers Game Unhelpful Review of Literature Largest and most far reaching writing records are the PAS Literature Reviews found in the Compositions Research segment on the PAS site and Steve Weiss Music (biggest merchant of percussion sheet music) PAS = 1204 aggregate console percussion performances (from site) Difficult to translate if the piece is for four-hammer marimba (audits are not institutionalized and not all analysts list # of hammers) Several dynamic technique/exercise books contain all levels of trouble yet just recorded in one class Piece is just looked into if writer/distributer sends it to PAS and the piece is chosen to be checked on (not complete) Elementary-Intermediate (1-3) = 579, Intermediate-Advanced (4-6) = 625 SWM = 1000 aggregate console percussion performances (from site) Impossible to decode if the piece is for four-hammer marimba (review nor survey incorporates illumination of instrumentation and # of hammers) Website does not have evaluating number alloted to each piece Last printed inventory with reviewing numbers was 2001-2002 (outdated) 107-Grades 1-3, 626-Grades 4-6, unaccompanied marimba performances

Slide 15

Proving Hypothesis Unsuccessful with basic strides Numbers amusement was somewhat effective in light of the fact that correlations were not equivalent – diverse evaluating frameworks, same pieces recorded at two distinctive trouble levels Investigated littler writing records however they were made with various perspectives characterized by individual conclusion. No framework utilized characterized parameters with which to impartially dissect four-hammer marimba writing. Understanding that there is no great asset of far reaching data around four-hammer marimba writing - academic, amount and fundamental information

Slide 16

Model Research Dr. Jane Magrath, Professor of Piano Pedagogy at OU Created educational asset of a huge number of piano works; every section is commented on and alloted to one of ten diverse execution Levels No goal criteria; all her expert conclusion

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Complete Research Steps PILOT PROJECT Analyze 50 pieces at the middle of the road level 1. Every piece must be recorded as halfway by one of three sources : Steve Weiss 2001-2002 index, PAS Reviews library, MSHSAA PGML 2. After above rundown was set up, pieces were picked haphazardly Establish objective, reviewing criteria by ex

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