HAKONE XI Oleron Island September 7-12, 2008.

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NON-Warm Barometrical Weight PLASMAS FOR Aerodynamic APPLICATIONS Richard B. Miles, Dmitry Opaits , Mikhail N. Shneider , Sohail H. Zaidi - Princeton Sergey macheret – Lockheed Alexander Likhanskii – Penn State U. HAKONE XI Oleron Island September 7-12, 2008 Layout
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NON-THERMAL ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE PLASMAS FOR AERONAUTIC APPLICATIONS Richard B. Miles, Dmitry Opaits , Mikhail N. Shneider , Sohail H. Zaidi - Princeton Sergey macheret – Lockheed Alexander Likhanskii – Penn State U. HAKONE XI Oleron Island September 7-12, 2008

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Outline Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) Configuration Performance with Sinusoidal Driver Modeling of Pulse Sustained DC Driven Experimental Set up Visualization strategy Surface Charge Effects Surface Charge estimation Bias Switching Experiments Schlieren Movies and results Thrust Stand Tests New Electrode Configuration Conclusions

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Offset DBD Configuration for Flow Control

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Surface Plasma

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Limitations of Sinusoidal Driven DBD Control Breakdown happens haphazardly amid every cycle There is a noteworthy in reverse segment of the push amid the cycle Thrust is not created just as in the positive and negative segment of the cycle The obligation cycle is low – piece of the time no push is being produced

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Pulse Sustained, DC Driven DBD Concept Dielectric material: kapton tape thickness 100 μ m Electrodes: copper foil width 25 mm spanwise faint. 50 mm The circuit is outlined in order to superimpose short heartbeats on a low recurrence inclination voltage without obstruction between the pulser and the low-recurrence power supply. The beats and the inclination voltage are controlled autonomously

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Main contrasts between heartbeats with subjective predisposition and sine voltage Sine Voltage Pulses with Bias Two capacities at the same time: Plasma era and body power on the gas Pulses effectively create plasma Bias delivers the body power on the gas The parameters of heartbeat inclination setup – crest heartbeat voltage, beat redundancy rate, heartbeat burst rate, obligation cycle, and both the recurrence and plentifulness of the time-depended inclination voltage – can be shifted freely, enormously expanding adaptability of control and improvement of the DBD actuator

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Terminology utilized as a part of the paper for the beat and predisposition voltage polarities. The epitomized terminal is constantly thought to be at zero potential. The indication of capability of the presented terminal with respect to the exemplified one decides the beat and inclination extremity.

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Predicted Streamer Like Ionization with 3kV, 4 nsec positive heartbeats and 1 kV positive DC predisposition

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Predicted Average Force with 3kV, 500kHz, 4 nsec positive heartbeats and 1 kV positive DC inclination

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Predicted Momentum Transfer with 4 nsec heartbeats Blue and green lines compare to the negative heartbeats with amplitudes - 4.5 and - 1.5 kV with positive inclination of 0.5 kV, and the pink line relates to the positive heartbeats with 3 kV sufficiency and positive inclination of 1 kV. FWHM for all heartbeats is 4 ns.

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Predicted Surface Jet Generated Vortex with heartbeat burst

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Schlieren strategy for the DBD plasma actuator prompted stream 0.5 m/sec at 17 mm 7 m/sec in the plasma locale! x Schlieren strategy, burst method of plasma actuator operation, and 2-D liquid numerical model coupled together permit to restore the whole two-dimensional precarious plasma impelled stream design and in addition the plasma\'s qualities instigated power.

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Results DC Bias analyses Pulses: 50 kHz - 20 μ s between heartbeats 500 heartbeats for each burst - 10 ms for every burst 1000 heartbeats for each period - 50 blasts for every second 5kV heartbeat voltage - 2 kV.. +2 kV DC inclination voltage

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Results Surface charge tests Positive heartbeats 0 kV Bias Voltage +2 kV Bias Voltage 10 s 10 s 20 s 20 s 60 s 60 s wiped 0 kV → +2 kV First run

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Results Bias switch analyses Switching the predisposition\'s extremity voltage has a sensational impact on the DBD operation: much speedier planes and vortices are created contrasted and the consistent predisposition cases Reason - amassing of surface charge on the dielectric

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Charge Build-up Along Surface with Sinusoidal Applied Voltage 3kHz, 10kV top to-crest . Non-reaching Trek Model 247-3 Electrostatic Voltmeter with Trek Model 6000B-13C Electrostatic Voltmeter Probe. Quick reaction time (less then 3 ms for a 1kV stage) Operating extent from 0 to +/ - 3 kV DC or crest AC. Spatial determination of ~1 mm.

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Surface Charge Build up with 2kV DC inclination and 4kV heartbeats at 20 kHz

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Charge Build-up Rate

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Charge Bleed Off Rate

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Single Sided Versus Double Positive heartbeats Although a beat\'s portion blasts don\'t make an in number divider plane, regardless they assume a vital part in the DBD operation. Their assignment is to release/revive the dielectric surface and along these lines to expand the effectiveness of alternate blasts.

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Single Sided Versus Double Negative heartbeats without the beat burst amid the other half-cycle, the incited divider plane velocity gets to be 2-3 times lower. The divider planes incited by negative heartbeats develop into two-vortex arrangements though the ones from the positive heartbeats don\'t.

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Results Sinusoidal inclination examinations Pulses: 50 kHz -20 μ s between heartbeats 208 heartbeats for every burst - 4.16 ms for every burst 416 heartbeats for every period - 120 blasts for every second 5kV crest voltage Totally not quite the same as traditional sinusoidal profile!! Inclination: 60 Hz sinusoidal 2.6 kV crest to-crest voltage

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Results Pulse Repetition Rate Positive heartbeats 20 kHz 50 kHz 100 kHz

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Results Pulse Repetition Rate Negative heartbeats 30 kHz 50 kHz 70 kHz

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Results Pulse Voltage Positive heartbeats 3.3 kV 5.0 kV 7.4 kV

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Results Pulse Voltage Negative heartbeats 3.3 kV 5.0 kV 7.4 kV

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Results Bias Voltage Positive heartbeats 5 kV 10 kV 13 kV

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Results Bias Voltage Negative heartbeats 5 kV 10 kV 13 kV

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Scaling with Pulse Repetition Rate

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Scaling with Pulse Voltage

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Scaling with Bias Voltage

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Shielded Thrust Stand

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Thrust Measurements with High Voltage Pulses and Oscillating Bias Voltage Waveforms

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Thrust Dependence on Square Wave Duty Cycle

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Thrust Dependence with Positive Pulses Common point: 10kV crest to top square wave predisposition, 100Hz, 3kV heartbeats at 25kHz

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Thrust Dependence with Negative Pulses Common point: 10kV top to crest square wave predisposition, 100Hz, 3kV heartbeats at 25kHz

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Summary of Thrust Measurements

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Low Voltage Region

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New DBD Design with Exposed Lower Electrode

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Thrust Scaling with New Design 4 kV positive inclination voltage, 3 kV negative heartbeats 4 10 kHz PRR, 3 kV negative heartbeats

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Conclusions Offset dielectric boundary releases can produce solid surface planes for streamlined control Using AC to drive the balance DBD is not ideal Reverse push segment Low obligation cycle Uncontrolled plasma development another voltage waveform, comprising of high-voltage nanosecond dreary heartbeats superimposed on a DC voltage was proposed The tests demonstrated that the energize expand on the dielectric surface shields both the connected DC and AC electric field Charge develop was overcome with high voltage heartbeat managed plasma and A high-voltage low-recurrence sinusoidal or square wave predisposition voltage An incompletely secured anode arrangement working with a DC inclination Bias voltage is the most critical parameter for push era .:t

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