Helped Proliferation In Jeopardized Species Rick Mauldin and Collette Thepenier BS640, Fall 2006.

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Category: Animals / Pets
Addendum II incorporates species not as a matter of course undermined with eradication, but rather in which ... Argali sheep (White et al. 1999) gaur (Lanza et al. 2000) however these endeavors did not ...
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Helped Reproduction In Endangered Species Rick Mauldin & Collette Thepenier BS640, Fall 2006

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What is an Endangered Species? Characterized by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) Appendix I incorporates species undermined with elimination. Exchange examples of these species is allowed just in extraordinary conditions. Addendum II incorporates species not as a matter of course debilitated with termination, but rather in which exchange must be controlled keeping in mind the end goal to stay away from use contrary with their survival.

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What is an Endangered Species? "An animal varieties that is in risk of elimination and whose survival is improbable if the causal components proceed with; included are species whose numbers have been lessened to a basic level or whose living spaces have been so radically diminished that the species are considered to be in threat of annihilation."

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Causes of Extinction Habitat misfortune or debasement agribusiness advancement Overexploitation (chasing) Competition/predation by intrusive species Combinations of the above, much of the time with an activating occasion, i.e. characteristic calamity

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World Conservation Union 2006 Red List Mammals 1,093 Birds 1,206 Reptiles 341 Amphibians 1,811 Fishes 1,173 Total 5,624 Invertebrates 2,101

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What is Assisted Reproduction? In people: "The utilization of medicinal procedures, for example, drug treatment, manual sperm injection, or in vitro preparation, to improve richness." Expanded to include: Any guided move made by people to upgrade generation in creatures.

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Assisted Reproduction Techniques Divide the subject into two sections: 1) Assisted multiplication with a specialized part (generally well evolved creatures) 2) Assisted generation utilizing different types of populace administration The two are not totally unrelated

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Assisted Reproduction Techniques Artificial Insemination Embryo move In vitro preparation Semen/incipient organism sexing Gamete/fetus micromanipulation Somatic cell atomic exchange (SCNT) Genome asset saving money

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Five Steps Necessary for Adoption of an AR Technique (from Swanson, 2006) Technique advancement in a local creature partner, if accessible 2) Characterization of species-particular regenerative science in a focused on non-household creature 3) Assessment of method attainability for delivering posterity 4) Demonstration of sufficient proficiency for connected utilization 5) Application of new instrument for populace administration

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\'Appealling Megafauna\' Animals that have prominent advance thus can shape the premise of preservation battles and gathering pledges drives.

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World Wildlife Fund Logo

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Before we even start: For jeopardized species, absence of fundamental learning of conceptive cycles is a noteworthy obstacle How can data concerning estrous cycles/pregnancy be gotten when people are uncommon, confinements exist on what might be finished with prisoners? Fecal/urinary measures for steroid/hormone metabolites to demonstrate endocrine status gorillas (Czekal, 1997) pandas (Kersey et al. 2003) executioner whales (Pukazhenthi and Wildt (2004) Ultrasonography additionally helpful in taking after ovarian cycles

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Artificial Insemination (AI) Wild female caught and treated with sperm from zoo male, discharged, or the other way around. Real application is to evade hereditary discouragement in divided populaces Assumes sperm can be gathered

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"In the first place, we are working with species that are frequently unsafe, if not destructive" (Wildt, 2006)

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Artificial Insemination Standard accumulation strategies, i.e. fake vagina vaginal condoms electroejaculation (under anesthesia) posthumous epididymal These can be troublesome for: non-local equids, some awesome primates, canids marsupials (Pukazhenthi &Wildt, 2004) Large interspecific contrasts in new versus solidified

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Artificial Insemination Problems: Ovulation must be initiated or synchronized by exogenous gonadotropins which as often as possible don\'t work Gross female anatomical contrasts, i.e two uteri in marsupials, complex cervix in oryx, rhinoceros, others. Genuine site of semen affidavit much of the time not known, more often than not transabdominally by laparoscope (intrusive surgery)

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Artificial Insemination Successes Conceptions: gerenuk (Litocranius walleri) pacific white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus obliquidens) Bottle-nosed dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)

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Artificial Insemination Successes Live births : Persian panther (Panthera pardus saxicolor) Spanish Ibex (Capra pyrenaica hispanica) Giant panda ( Ailuropoda melanoleuca) Cheetah ( Acinonyx jubatus )

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Embryo Transfer (ET) Most critical angle is to make ready for interspecies exchange Gaur destined to a holstein (Stover, et al. 1981) Indian desert feline to a local feline (Loskutoff, 2003) Urial to a household sheep (Ullah et al. 2006) Little is think about fetus advancement or feto-maternal acknowledgment in many species

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In vitro Fertilization Many endeavors, couple of accomplishments Requires oocyte gathering, learning of ovarian cycles. Can utilize ovaries from passing on creatures. Jaguars, tigers, cheetahs, Indian desert felines, gaur, elephants, gorillas, zebras, marmosets, minke whales, ocelots, springboks, numerous others Live births in just tigers, Indian desert felines, gorillas, and European mouflon

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Gamete/Embryo Micromanipulation Intra-cytoplasmic sperm infusion (ICSI) Sub-zonal insemination (SUZI) sperm put amongst zp and vitelline film, can prompt polyspermy In obfuscated panthers and cheetah, up to 70% of sperm might be disfigured or anomalous. ICSI permits determination of solid sperm, however has not been connected to jeopardized species yet.

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Semen Sexing Great potential in single-sex commanded social structures (O\'Brien et al. 2002) Excessive guys can play ruin with little populace administration Used effectively in gorillas in conjunction with IVF and ICSI (O\'Brien et al. 2002)

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Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT) Has been endeavored in: mammoth panda (Chen, et al. 2002) Argali sheep (White et al. 1999) gaur (Lanza et al. 2000) however these endeavors did not bring about reasonable posterity Apparently sound posterity brought about trans-species cloning in mouflon sheep (Loi, et al. 2001) (mouflon granulosa cores to enucleated sheep oocyte)

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Small Cat Species Survival Plan Black-footed feline Fishing feline (Prionailurus viverrinus) Arabian sand feline (Felis margarita) Pallas\' feline (Otocolobus manul) Brazilian ocelot (Leopardus pardalis mitis) (Felis nigripes)

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ART Success Story The Wild European Mouflon sheep (Ovis musimon) Oocytes gathered, then developed and prepared in vitro After cryopreservation, 10 sets of blastocysts were transplanted into 10 beneficiary local ewes. Comes about: 4 live posterity

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The Story So Far… … .. Craftsmanship indicates extraordinary guarantee for improving propagation in jeopardized species To date, reality has not stayed aware of "buildup", results are conflicting, typically disappointment. These systems require considerably more R&D Many species don\'t have sufficient energy to hold up, and ART is costly and speaks to a venture that can be utilized somewhere else Disparity amongst guarantee and deliverable results has brought about clash between ART specialists and natural life researcher

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CryoPreservation Inhibits all organic movement, esp. that which prompts cell passing or disintegration Use Vitrification Agent to anticipate crystalline development by means of the transformation of cell material to an undefined glass-like strong CONS : Species contrasts in cryosensitivity - Nieman and Rath, 2001 No standard Vitrification technique - Andrabi & Maxwell, 2006

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Genome Resource Banking Goal : To make vaults of germplasm as an interface between ex situ and in situ preservation programs - Holt and Pickard, 1999 GRB can be instrument for dealing with the trading of hereditary differences among imperiled species by encouraging the making of a worldwide quality pool - Hanks, 2001 One of the best approaches to moderate hereditary assets is by building up cryocollections and cryobanks of jeopardized and mechanically essential species - Katov, 2006

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- Holt and Pickard, 1999

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Types: Semen Banks Spermatogonia Embryo or Oocyte Banks Primordial Follicles Fertilized Oocytes Tissue Graft Banks Ovarian Tissue Testicular Tissue Genome Resource Banking

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Pros & Cons Semen Banks (+) : Heterozygosity; DEC in hostage ♂ and in mvmt of creatures (- ) : Low effectiveness in sperm generation – Paris, et al., 2004 Embryo or Oocyte Banks (+) : Storage of full or half supplement of DNA to safeguard heterozygosity (- ) : Cryobiology of Embryo & Oocyte practicality generally obscure – Andrabi & Maxwell, 2006 Tissue Graft Banks (+) : Age, Cycle doesn\'t make a difference; Can gather from cadavers of obscure etiology; Future with SCNT – Cleary et al., 2006; Snow et al., 2001 (- ) : More research expected to distinguish wellsprings of appropriate cells – Andrabi & Maxwell, 2006

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- Holt and Pickard, 1999

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Assisted ≠ Artificial

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Ex situ Conservation Entrance to the Bronx Zoo in New York "Off-site" Conservation Protection through the expulsion of an animal categories from hazardous or undermined natural surroundings and setting the whole populace (or some segment of) under human consideration

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Ex situ Conservation Methods: Zoos & Breed

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