Herpetology: the Science of Tetrapods (BIOEE 470 and 472).

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Pleurodira or
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Herpetology: the Biology of Tetrapods (BIOEE 470 and 472) • I\'ll have the midterms reviewed and return them to you next Tuesday, and in addition give a few grounds to good faith to anybody agonized over their score on that first exam… what number sorts of reptiles would you be able to find in this vista at Wakulla Springs, FL? (photo:H.W.Greene)

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Herpetology: The Biology of Tetrapods… Next perusing task: Pough et al., Ch. 4, pp. 97-111 and pp.169-173 New vocabulary: carapace, plastron, span, scutes, osteoderm, Pleurodira, Cryptodira, Carettochelyidae, Ninjemys , Chelydridae, Cheloniidae, Dermochelyidae, Emydidae, Terrapene , Testudinidae, Gopherus , Trionychidae, Kinosternidae, Alligatoridae, Crocodylidae, Gavialidae, thecodont Tetrapoda Amphibia Amniota Mammalia Reptilia Testudines Archosauria Crocodylia Aves Lepidosauria

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Our last huge clade: Amphibia, Mammalia, and now Reptilia… • Reptilia ••Turtles: disputable connections and root ••Archosaurs: crocs, pterosaurs, dinosaurs including winged animals ••Lepidosaurs: tuatara, "reptiles," amphisbaenians, snakes • Ectothermic (aside from flying creatures) with textured epidermis (expounded as plumes in fowls), however generally contrasts are noteworthy! • These are antiquated heredities and generally "reptiles," including "well evolved creature like reptiles" (=stem warm blooded creatures or basal synapsids), were the "ordered residue" after vertebrates and winged animals had been raised to unique status among amniotes…

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What is a turtle? • Turtle, tortoise, reptile, chelonian • Shell is a crate of dermal bone, incorporating ribs, spine, supports; comprises of carapace, plastron, and scaffold • Beak, no teeth (happen in stem turtles) • Longitudinal vent, penis, eggs, TDSD • Lungs are confined, grow at base of appendages, pharyngeal and buccal pumping, cloaca infrequently works as a gill • Aquatic precursor, distracted nourishing Upper: Heosemys , Vietnam; center: Chelus , South America; base: Claudius , Mexico (photos:H.W.Greene, bottom:H.B.Shaffer)

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Turtle assorted qualities: Pleurodira • Two clades: Pleurodira and Cryptodira • Pleurodira or "side-necked" turtles, in which the head withdraws in and S-curve to one side or left • Southern landmasses, relicts from Gondwanaland (see maps in Pough et al.) • Modest differences of species and shell structure: for the most part lake turtles, stream turtles, or base walkers • Stupendemys , 2.3 m shell! Upper left and right: Phrynops; base Hydromedus ; both Brazil (base (photo:M.Martins; others H.W.Greene)

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Turtle assorted qualities: Cryptodira and Ninjemys • "Covered up necked" turtles, in which the head withdraws in a vertical S-twist, are cosmopolitan, for the most part on northern landmasses (maps in content) • Cryptodirans display incredible differing qualities of species, shell structure, and environment—Trachemys scripta is presumably the most broadly appropriated turtle! • Horned Meiolanidae, as of late wiped out sister taxon of cryptodires, made due until Late Pleistocene on islands off Australia • Ninjemys: " Ninja , in reference to those absolutely rad, fearsome foursome who typify shelled achievement; emys , turtle" (E.H.Gaffney, 1996, Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 229:1-166) (Upper photo:H.W.Greene; base from P.V.Rich et al., Kadimakara: Extinct Vertebrates of Australia )

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Turtle assorted qualities: a straightforward plan of body structure and living spaces • Are there truly only five "sorts" of turtles? Contrast these accommodation classes and photographs and portrayals in content... Is it accurate to say that all are of them found in NY? • First, moderate moving " base walkers ": intense carapace, little plastron, likely primitive; incorporates numerous pleurodires, Chelydra, and Kinosternidae — these are the embodiment of "distracted rummaging," and they are by and large all around safeguarded… Chelydra serpentina , NY (Upper photo:H.E.Evans; lower:D.Steen)

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Turtle differing qualities: body structure and natural surroundings • Second, " lake turtles " (e.g., Emydidae): hydrodynamic baskers, for example, our nearby Chrysemys picta — one of the world\'s most excellent creatures! • Third, " delicate shelled turtles" (Carettochelyidae and Tryonichidae): quick moving and sneakey seekers, level and smooth, long neck and nose Upper: Pseudemys , FL; lower: Carettochelys , New Guinea (photos:H.W.Greene)

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Turtle assorted qualities: body structure and living spaces • Fourth, " ocean turtles" (Cheloniidae and Dermochelyidae): combined digits, absolutely marine, bizarre weight control plans • Females come back to natal shoreline to settle, later there is a "hatchling free for all"— generally marine turtles never leave the ocean… • Leatherback is heaviest living reptile, eats jellyfish and in this manner likewise plastic sacks, genuinely jeopardized… Upper and center: Chelonia mydas ; lower: Dermochelys coriacia ; both Costa Rica (lower photo:W.E.Rainey; others:V.Perez)

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Turtle diversity:Testudinidae • Fifth, " tortoises " have a hard domed shell and monstrous feet, are earthly, and are in any event mostly or absolutely herbivorous • Testudinids—genuine tortoises — are cosmopolitan and constantly herbivorous • Tortoises regard eat, simple to get, and frequently imperiled Upper: Geochelone , Galapagos Islands; base: Gopherus polyphemus , FL (photos:H.W.Greene)

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Turtle differences: four encouraging systems • One, herbivory : strict vegans, substantial gut, high through-put • Two, omnivory (broad): regularly more specific as insectivorous adolescents and herbivorous grown-ups ( Trachemys scripta ) • Three, carnivory : eat creatures, including vertebrates ••pluckers that snap, pulverize, shear (Kinosternidae) ••spearers like Apalone , Chelydra ••anglers, Macrochelys • Four, neustophagia : eat neuston, "wine glass" simple (different lake turtles, e.g., some pleurodires and emydids) • Not as a matter of course harmonious with my "five sorts of turtles" plan…

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Turtle normal history: Gopherus • Gopher Tortoise ( G. polyphemus ), southeastern US; Texas Tortoise ( G. berlandieri ), south TX and northern Mexico; Desert Tortoise ( G. agassizii ), southewestern US and northwestern Mexico; and Bolson Tortoise ( G. flavomarginatus ), north-focal Mexico • All burrow tunnels, and they frequently have uncommon preservation status • Bolson Tortoise, portrayed as another species in 1958, achieves 50 kg (100 lbs), is imperiled and a contender for Pleistocene rewilding (from H. Vetter, 2004, Turtles of the World, Vol. 2 ) Gopherus flavomarginatus (Photo:J.Lovich)

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Turtle common history: G. agassizii • Desert Tortoise: found in Mohave and Sonoran Deserts of AZ, CA, UT, and northwestern Mexico • Some populaces imperiled by oppression and scene changes • Ecological people group parts as designers, commensals, seed dispersers, and so on. (Photos:H.W.Greene)

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Turtle common history: G. agassizii • Sex, passing, and training in the Mohave Desert… • Human waste prompted more Ravens, and more Raven predation on youthful Desert Tortoises • Off-street vehicle movement squashes tortoises and their tunnels, and their riders once in a while even shoot tortoises… Desert Tortoise Preserve, California City, CA (Photos:H.W.Greene)

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Turtle regular history: Terrapene • North American box turtles are specific earthly emydids; they advanced from a lake turtle legacy • Emydids that are fairly joined on tortoises—in what ways, environmentally and moprhologically? • Terrestrial and omnivorous, however T. coahuilae is optionally oceanic (we will see it at the Bronx Zoo) • Great book by Ken Dodd! Terrapene carolina (Photo:H.W.Greene)

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Turtles are extraordinary! • Complex and unforeseen conduct •• Clemmys insculpta and how it discovers worms to eat ••Parental care in Kinosternon and Gopherus ••Predatory conduct of Philadelphia Geochelone • They are defenseless and debilitated for nourishment and pet exchange (humorous, given so all around ensured in nature) • Bog Turtles ( Clemmys muhlenburgi ) epitomize a few preservation issues… Bog Turtle incubating at Zoo Atlanta (Photo:H.W.Greene)

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