Herpetology: the Science of Tetrapods (BIOEE 470 and 472).

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Developments in lizard social frameworks: Japanese Giant Salamander
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Herpetology: the Biology of Tetrapods (BIOEE 470 and 472) • See the Center for North American Herpetology ( http://www.cnah.org ) for student summer entry level positions, free productions, and a great deal a greater amount of enthusiasm… Calling male leaf rog ( Phyllomedusa sauvagii ) Photo:H.W.Greene Course site : www.eeb.cornell.edu/herpetology/index.html

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Phylogenetic characterization of living salamanders*… Urodela Sirenidae (2 genera/4 species) Neocaudata Cryptobranchoidea Cryptobranchidae (2/3) Hynobiidae (9/43) Salamandroidea* * Ambystomatidae (1/30) Amphiuma (1/3) Dicamptodontidae (1/4) Plethodontidae (27/360) Proteiidae (2/6) Rhyacotriton (1/4) Salamandridae (15/62) *salamanders, newts, and so on * uncertain polytomy ( Andrias japonicus , Cryptobranchidae, photo:A.Savitzky) ( Pseudoeurycea bellii , Plethodontidae, photo:J.Sigala)

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More life history differences… Direct improvement : • no amphibian larval stage • earthbound eggs • numerous plethodontids Viviparity : • live birth of hatchlings or youthful • with or without maternal sustenance • just in a couple of Old World salamandrids Upper: Fire Salamander ( salamandra (Salamandridae, photo:H.W.Greene); lower, Alpine Black Salamander ( S. atra , photo:M.H.Wake)

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Innovations in lizard social frameworks: Japanese Giant Salamander "nook aces" • 90 evenings of field work, 98 hrs of perceptions of home An and 25 hrs of home B, 103 lizards were recognized separately • A solitary additional vast lair expert cornered every home, except up to 9 females and 17 different guys went by his site • Females at a site ate the eggs of different females, and little guys endeavoring to barge in on the home site were at times eaten by the sanctum aces • "All cave aces forcefully prepared for endeavors by the specialists to gather their eggs… " (T. Kawamichi and H. Ueda, 1998, J. Herpetology 32:133-136)

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More developments in lizard social frameworks: sexual impedance in ambystomatids and plethodontids • Male Spotted Salamanders ( Ambystoma maculatum ) place their spermatophores on top of those of different guys in thick rearing conglomerations • Some male Jordan\'s Salamanders ( Plethodon jordani ) imitate a taking after female so that the lead male views the interceding male as a female, and the mediating male then stores a spermatophore before the genuine after female • More on this in an up and coming address by Kelly Zamudio

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Evolutionary advancements and patterns in lizard nourishing science… • Larval and grown-up lizards are carnivores • suction sustaining (all hatchlings, cryptobranchids, proteiids) • basic tongue projection (e.g., ambystomatids, most salamandrids) • go see Steve Deban\'s extraordinary encouraging motion pictures ( www.autodax.net )— don\'t miss them!! Spotted Salamander ( Ambystoma maculatum , Ambystomatidae, photo:H.W.Greene)

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Specialized tongue projection (a couple salamandrids, numerous plethodontids) … • Facilitated by lunglessness and direct improvement • Hyoid mechanical assembly, skeletal components liberated from primitive parts in larval nourishing and grown-up breath • Subarcualis rectus and rectus cervicus : what are they? • Functional morphology: how does the entire framework work ? • Note groove along flank of lizard… and truly, go to www.autodax.net Web-toed lizard ( Hyrdromantes sp., Plethodontidae, photo:S.Deban)

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Diversity in the Salamandridae: Old World Newts • High assorted qualities (13 genera, ca. 56 species; differing morphology, nature, conduct) • Dramatic regular changes in male outside morphology • Diverse, even unusual antipredator components (splendid hues, skin poisons, spines) Asian newt ( Tylototriton andersoni , photo:A.H.Savitzky)

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Diversity in the Salamandridae: New World Newts • Taricha (3 species) in the West, Notophthalmus (3 species) in the East • "Hyper complex" life cycle of the Eastern Red-spotted Newt Notopthalmus viridescens ••Aquatic eggs and hatchlings, earthbound efts, oceanic grown-ups ••Eft skin poisons, aposematic tinge, mimicry ••Adults, red efts, and mirrors in your field guide • Can you see a parallel to the morphological complexities of the Notopthalmus life cycle with those of Taricha and Old World newts? Which is quite intricate?

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Salamandrid differing qualities: western North American newts ( Taricha ) • At slightest 3 species in western North America, sister taxon to Notopthalmus • Terrestriality, diurnal weakness and barrier (tarichotoxin) • Male change for reproducing season Rough-cleaned Newts ( T. granulosa , Salamandridae, photos:H.W.Greene

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Salamandrid assorted qualities: western North American newts ( Taricha ) •Mass generating •Environmental instability and little grasp size California Newts ( Taricha torosa , Salamandridae, top photo:M.K.Colbert, base photos:M.F.Benard)

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Salamandrid differences: European Fire Salamanders ( salamandra ) Males roost like reptiles, snare moving females… Photos:W.Kästle

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Plethodontid differing qualities: ensatinas ( Ensatina ) • Terrestrial weakness and barrier • Terrestrial romance and regularity of movement • Direct improvement and parental consideration • Escaping ecological vulnerability Ensatina eschescholtzi (Plethodontidae, photos:H.Greene)

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Salamander assorted qualities: some extraordinary plethodontids… Arboreal Salamander (Plethodontiade, Aneides lugubris ) • Climbs, bounced and chomps • Terrestrial direct advancement Photos:H.Greene

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Salamander assorted qualities, another outstanding plethodontid: Spring Salamander ( Gyrinophilus porphyriticus ) • Burrows among rocks and rock in streams • Larvae develop entirely extensive before transformation • Adult weighs ≥20 g (2 pens)! • Eats gloomy lizards ( Desmognathus ) • Locally basic! Photo:H.Greene

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