History of the English Language WS 2005/6Slide 2
Topics Linguistic changes: syntax and vocabulary Social and political occasions that impacted the improvement of the English dialect English assortments Mechanisms of dialect changeSlide 3
Course script Digitale Bibliothek Thüringen Search: Diessel – History of the English LanguageSlide 4
What you will realize: Why the English spelling is so odd Why English does not have case stamping Why English built up an unbending word arrange Why there are consistent and unpredictable verbs frames Why numerous English words are like words in German Why numerous English words are like words in French Why questions require the utilization of ‛do\' Why English has turned into a world dialectSlide 5
Requirements Short exam for understudy who began a year ago. 1 5% 2 10% 3 5% 4 20% 5 60%Slide 6
Readings Barber, Charles. 2000 . The English Language. A Historical Introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Baugh, A.C. furthermore, T. Link. 2002. A History of the English Language. London: Routledge. [fifth edition] Jucker, Andreas H. 2004. History of English and English Historical Linguistics. Stuttgart: Klett. Millward, C.M. 1996. A Biography of the English Language. Boston: Heinle. [second edition] The Cambridge History of the English Language. Vol. I-V. 1992. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Slide 7
Readings Aitchison, J. Dialect Change. Advance or Decay. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Trask, R.L. 1996. Verifiable Linguistics. London: Arnold. McMahon, A.M.S. 1995. Understanding Language Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Hawk, H.H. 1991. Standards of Historical Linguistics. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Croft, W. 2000. Clarifying Language Change. An Evolutionary Approach. Harlow: Longman.Slide 8
Time periods 450-1100 Old English 1100-1500 Middle English 1500-1800 Early Modern English 1800-present Present Day EnglishSlide 9
Germanic Germanic West Germanic North Germanic East Germanic English Swedish Gothic Frisian Danish Vandal German Norwegian Burgundian Yiddish Icelandic Dutch AfrikaansSlide 13
English German Swedish sun Sonne sol house Haus hus cat Katze kat apple Apfel äpple father Vater fader hand Hand hand go gehen gar see sehen sar hear hören höra run rennen rännar dream träumen drömarSlide 14
English advance words in German English German computer Computer email Email internet Internet jeans Jeans event Event laptop Laptop cool cool mountain bike Mountain Bike absolutely absolutSlide 15
Loan words in English take Old Norse give Old Norse they Old Norse paper French story French force French wall Latin street Latin school Latin kindergarten GermanSlide 16
English-German sound correspondences English German time Zeit tongue Zunge ten zehn tame zahm tent Zelt to zu two zwei twins ZwillingeSlide 17
English-German sound correspondences that das there da through durch thirsty durstig think denkenSlide 18
English-German sound correspondences pan Pfanne path Pfad pole Pfahl pepper Pfeffer pipe Pfeife plant PflanzeSlide 19
English-German sound correspondences hate hassen eat essen let lassen grip greifen deep tief sleep schafenSlide 20
IE remade word shapes *pe:s- \'foot\' *ed- \'eat\' *ghebh- \'give\' *aug- \'increase\' *wed- \'water\'Slide 21
English-German sound correspondences cheddar child chin happy church lord Käse Kind Kinn Kirsche Kirche KönigSlide 22
Loan words from French crime crime prison prison letter lettre justice justice contract contrat music musique demand demander pronounce prononcer propose proposer responsible responsableSlide 23
Cognates: English-French one un, une two deux three trois four quatre five cinq six six seven sept eight huit nine neuf ten dixSlide 24
Romance French Catalan Italian Galician Spain Sardinian Portuguese Provencal Romanian RhomanshSlide 26
Sound correspondences in RomanceSlide 27
Indo-European Germanic Greek Romance Iranian Slavic Indian Baltic Albanian Celtic ArmenianSlide 30
Balto-Slavic Balto-Slavic Baltic Slavic Latvian Lithuanian East Slavic West Slavic South Slavic Old Prussian Russian Polish Serbo-Croatian Russian Czech Slovene Belarusian Slovak Bulgarian Sorbian MacedonianSlide 32
Cases in Indo-EuropeanSlide 33
Celtic Celtic Gaelic Irish Scottish Welsh Manx Cornish BretonSlide 41
700 English 500 Armenian 400 Gothic 0 200 Latin 400 Classical Sanskrit 800 Greek 1000 Old Persian 1200 Hittite 1500 Vedic Sanskrit 3000 Proto Indo-EuropeanSlide 46
Second Germanic sound move time Zeit tongue Zunge ten zehn that das there da through durch pan Pfanne path Pfad pole Pfahl hat hassen eat essen let lassen grip greifen deep tief sleep schlafenSlide 47
Numerals in Indo-European and non-Indo-European dialectsSlide 48
Sound correspondences in IESlide 49
Sound correspondences crosswise over random dialectsSlide 50
Sir William JonesSlide 51
Sound correspondences between Sanskrit, Latin and GreekSlide 52
August SchleicherSlide 55
Grimm\'s law *p t k f T x/h *b d g p t k *bh dh gh b d gSlide 56
Exceptions to Grimm\'s law [p t k] [f T x ] [b d g] Sanskrit Old English vár t ate weor T a varár t a wear T vavr t imá wur d on vavr t a:ná wor d enSlide 57
Verner\'s law [p t k] [f T x]/[stressed syllable] __ [b d g]/[unstressed syllable] __Slide 58
Neogrammarian Hypothesis Every stable change happens as per laws that concede no special cases. [Karl Brugmann]Slide 60
Evidence for the IE country Common words for: cool winter snow nectar wolf beech pine No regular words for: sea palm elephant camelSlide 70
Amerind speculation Eskimo Na Dene AmerindSlide 71
Number of speakers Mandarin 907 English 456 Hindi 383 Spanish 362 Russian 293 Arabic 208 Bengali 189 Portuguese 177 Indonesian 148 Japanese 126 French 123 German 119Slide 72
Nostratic Indo-European Altaic Uralic Afro-Asiatic Kartvelian
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