How Would We Consider the French Upheaval?.

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The Terror in The French Revolution: Contrasting Images. The Terror as Genocide/Totalitarianism. 250,000 Insurgents murdered in Vend
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How Do We Think About the French Revolution? How did the French Jacobins utilize state energy to accomplish progressive objectives amid the Terror (1793-1794)? What were their objectives? Why did unprecedented state control appear to be basic to achieving these objectives?

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The Terror in The French Revolution: Contrasting Images

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The Terror as Genocide/Totalitarianism 250,000 Insurgents slaughtered in Vend ée Fighting Alone - 15% populace But 200,000 Revolutionary troops murdered too Victims of Vendée depict the Terror as a Genocide of the Catholic Western France Probably 40,000 authoritatively executed in all of France Others portrayed pressure, the Jacobin Dictatorship, the value controls, and levée all at once (widespread draft of all subjects) a case of early Totalitarianism Drowning Prisoners – The Vend ée

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The Terror as Desperate Measure to manage Crisis During Terror : Universal Manhood Suffrage (ladies\' clubs) Radical Constitution of 1793 Abolished Serfdom Abolished Slavery Attempted Land Reform But : At war with the vast majority of Europe In genuine common war with uprisings in the Vend ée, real urban communities (Caen, Bordeaux, Marseille, Lyon)

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Key Problem: Sovereignty Who are the sovereign individuals and how would they practice sway? Why had they not settled the question between 1789 and1793?

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First Hint at Potential of Popular Violence

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Bringing the Baker, the Baker\'s Wife, and the Baker\'s Son Back to Paris

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Key Questions: How much would mainstream viciousness impact normal political level headed discussion? Is mainstream sway conceivable? How would you join regular workers Parisians, laborers, and ladies into the nation?

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August 10, 1792 – Attack on King in Tuileries

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The National Convention Fall of Verdun to Prussians (September 2, 1792) September Massacres (September 2-6,1792) French Victory at Valmy (September 20, 1792) French Annexation of Savoy (27 November 1793)

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Trial of King: Move to Terror

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Growing Split Between Mountain and Girondins Execution of Louis XVI (January 21, 1793) French Declare War on England, Holland, Spain (Feb-March 1793) Lev ée (Draft) of 300,000 (February 24, 1793) Creation of Special Revolutionary Tribunal (March 10, 1793) Creation of Surveillance Committees (March 10, 1793) Creation of Committee of Public Safety (April 6, 1793)

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Counterrevolution in Western France, March 1793 Number of Capital Sentences Passed

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Have People of Paris Become Source of Sovereignty? Law of Maximum (May 4, 1793) Invade Convention – Persuade Mountain to Arrest 31 Girondist Deputies for Treason (June 2, 1793) Ascendancy of Committee of Public Safety - Robespierre

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July-August 1793 – Situation Dire Federalist Revolts in Caen, Bordeaux, Marseille, Lyon – Provinces ought to be sovereign, not simply individuals of Paris Charlotte Corday Assassinates Jean-Paul Marat (July 13, 1793) Toulon Surrenders to British Navy (August 27, 1793) Defeat of French Revolution Seemed Certain Popular Movements in Paris weight Convention to Take Radical Measures (September 5-6, 1793)

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Radical Measures of Terror Lev ée as a group (August 23, 1793): "The young fellows will go in fight; wedded men will manufacture arms and transport arrangements; ladies will make tents and dress and serve in healing centers; youngsters will make gauzes; old men will get themselves conveyed to open spots to excite the valor of warriors and lecture scorn of rulers and solidarity of the republic."

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The General Maximum – Organize Economy for War (September 29, 1793)

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July 1794 – Enemies Defeated Planned Economy: Fixed Prices, Wages Food Rationing "Balance Bread" Organized Industry/Society to Produce Arms and Ammunition "Crisis Socialism" of a Profound Kind

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Ended Serfdom

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Constitution of 1793 "The point of society is the joy of all." "Open help is a hallowed obligation. Society owes a living to the disastrous among its nationals, either by looking for some kind of employment for them or by ensuring the method for subsistence to the individuals who are not in a fit condition to work." "Training is a need for all." "When the administration damages the privileges of the general population, then rebellion … is the most sacrosanct and essential of obligations."

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Women\'s Clubs Universal Manhood suffrage announced with Republic (September 1792) Women effectively included in clubs, Parisian areas, Convention (as hecklers) Women\'s Clubs Closed (October 30, 1793)

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Divorce September 1792 – Couple could separate by common assent, or for reasons like madness, battering, or criminal conviction April 23, 1794 – Women could separate spouses who relinquished them and remarry promptly

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Abolition of Slavery Abolition of subjection in French provinces (February 4, 1794)

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The Revolution "Eats up Its Own" Terror: Put on Trial "Foes of the Nation" for wrongdoings against "the country," "against the general population" Arrest and execution of H ébertistes (March 13-24, 1794) Arrest and execution of Dantonists (March 30-April 6, 1794) Law of 22 Prairial II (June 10, 1794): "Each native is enabled to seize schemers and counterrevolutionaries, and to bring them before the magistrates. He is required to criticize them as soon as he is aware of them." 40,000 Killed, 300,000 captured

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Thermidorian Reaction French annihilation Austrians at Fleurus (June 26, 1794) – expulsion of outside military danger ninth Thermidor (July 27, 1794) Execution and topple of Robespierre Wanted to make "A Republic of Virtue" Wrote early treatise against the Death Penalty How could the Revolution have turned out badly? Annulment of General Maximum (December 24, 1794) Forced used to limit Popular Political Activity Runaway Inflation Restricted Suffrage

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Question of Sovereignty Up for Grabs

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