Humanism of the City.


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Human science of the City Modification Week WK 2 Urbanization Starting points of Urban communities – 6-10k years prior Old Urban areas – (Sjoberg) Urban Transformation – (Childe) Early Western and Established Urban communities (Greco-Roman period)
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Human science of the City Revision Week

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WK 2 Urbanization Origins of Cities – 6-10k years back Ancient Cities – (Sjoberg) Urban Revolution – (Childe) Early Western & Classical Cities (Greco-Roman period) Decline of Urbanization (Middle ages) to ascent of pre-mechanical Cities (Renaissance city recently Middle Ages) Modernity, Capilalism, Industrialisation & Urbanization Postmodern (post-mechanical) Cities

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WK 3 Key Themes & Approaches Historical – Sjoberg, Childe, Mumford Early Urban Reformers – Booth, Rowntree, Mayhew, Engels (UK) Adams, Riis (USA) Modernity & Political Economy: Weber*, Durkheim, Marx & Engels*, Veblen, Benjamin, T ö nnies, Simmel* Urban Sociology: The Ecological Approach: The ‘Chicago School’ of Park, Burgess, Wirth et al. Late 1960’s onwards New Urban Sociology: Urban Political Economy: Lefebvre, Conflict & Capital Accumulation - Castells, Harvey, Urban ‘Growth Machine’ Logan & Molotch Globalization & World Cities: Sassen, Hall The Socio-Spatial Approach: Gottdiener & Hutchison (See additionally Contemporary Cultural/Postmodern Approaches: Zukin, Sennett, Bourdieu, Habermas, Foucault, Derrida, Baudrillard, Hannigan)

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WK4 The Social Map ‘Homo Sociologicus’ & the outer\'s privileging Sociology, Psychology & Biology Social Construction or ‘Co-construction’ The Social Map - Social Classification, Cognitive Parsimony & Routinisation, Emotion, Complexity Reduction: Reciprocal Constraint & Reciprocal Reinforcement, The ‘Janus Self’ (Homogeneity & Heterogeneity), Power Relations (Ideology, Inertia & Dependency) Urban Settings – Complexity, Functional Organization (Bureaucracy & Specialization) Social Interaction & Social Control ( Reciprocal Constraint & Reciprocal Reinforcement, ‘Civil Inattention’ ,The ‘Civilising Process’, Regimentation, Mass Media, Authority & Surveillance) Over-defense (environment and collaboration) (purchaser society)

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WK5 Urbanism 1 – City and (Lost?) Community Theme – Greater Freedom v. More prominent Isolation, Social Disorganization & Estrangement Defining Community Rural to Urban – Durkheim, Tonnies and so forth. Simmel - ‘Metropolis and Mental Life’ Wirth – ‘The Urban Way of Life’ Gans – ‘Urban Villagers’ Suburbia & the Suburban Way of Life Putnam – ‘Bowling Alone’

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WK6 Urbanism 2 – City, Identity & (changed) Community New Forms of Selfhood-Ascribed, Simple ID to Achieved, Complex ID, Expanded Roles & Interactions Dominance of ‘the Visual’ – Simmel, Veblen, Benjamin, Foucault, Goffman Consumption & Urban ID Benjamin – ‘Arcades Project’, ‘City Sketches’, the Flaneur Time – ‘Night Life’/24 hr society – )(see Melbin, Chatterton & Holland) – Hedonism & Play Civilisation & Social Control – Elias, Foucault, Bourdieu Urban culture as ‘Imagined Community’ – Anderson (see likewise Kornhauser & ‘Mass Society’) Media & Imagined Community/Mass Society – Celebs, Moral Panics (Cohen ) & Urban Myths Media Reception – Hypodermic & Active Models Sub-Cultures & New Forms Of Community – Fischer, Bellah, Maffesoli

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WK 7 Stratification, Inequality & Spatial Segregation Urban Social Classes (change from rustic request) Capitalist commodification of work/space Laissez Faire/Social Darwinism & Uneven Development Studies of Early Urban Inequality: (UK) Booth Mayhew, Rowntree, Engels (US) Riis, Veblen, Adams Late 19 th & Early 20 th C. Social Strife – Rent Strikes, Unions, Reform Keynesian Restructuring of Capitalism (Post 1930’s) Ethnic & Gender Divisions Late Modernity (from mid ’70’s) – come back to (neo) established financial aspects/marketisation Urban Polarization: A Growing Gap? – Wealth, Income, Housing Gentrification & Ghettoization? – Competition, Displacement, Fragmentation, Polarization, Underclass, Gating

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WK8 Urban Disorder, Crime, Deviance, Surveillance and Social Control ‘The Dangerous Classes’ (19 th C.) – Segregation, Religion, Temperance & ‘Rational Recreation’ Causes of Urban Crime - Individual Deviance/Immorality, Anomie, Alienation, Social Disorganization, Compositional Factors, Subcultures, Culture of Poverty & Underclass Norms, Uneven Development and Scale, Disadvantage, ‘Racial Disparity’, (Hyper) Segregation, Isolation, Media & Difference Causes of Urban Crime – Strain Theories – Merton and others Opportunity & Insecurity (Savage et al) Forms of Urban Crime & Deviance Civil Disorder & Riot – Collective Strain? The New ‘Dangerous’ Classes? Social Control, Law & Order – Policing & Prisons Social Control & Surveillance Society - Mass Media & Governmentality – Surveillance Society (Lyon)

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WK9 Urban Governance & Politics Power, Politics & Policy The Structure of Urban Politics Theories of Urban Governance – Elite Theories/Public Choice/Urban Political Economy/Urban ‘Growth’ Machine/Urban Regime Theory/Consensus Changing Nature of Urban Governance Urban ‘Democracy’ – Corruption, ‘Machine Politics’ & ‘Bossism’ Urban Governance & ‘Collective Consumption’ (Castells) Challenge to Collective Consumption (1970’s onwards) Political Participation (Local Elections) – comprehension declining turnout – ‘no need’, ‘no point’, privatization, ‘secessionism’, centralisation, globalization Filling the Gap: Urban Social Movements Metropolitan Social Policy: The Ongoing Debate (liberal social mediation v moderate business sector intercession) Social Justice (Harvey, 1973)

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WK 10 Modern & Postmodern ‘Spaces and Places’ The sociological refinement in the middle of ‘space’ and ‘place’ Lefebvre – Space as Experienced, Perceived & Imagined Harvey – ‘Created Spaces’ Topophilia; Space, Place, Emotion, Authenticity - Yi Fu Tuan Rational Society & The Rationalization of Urban Space (see ‘Disenchantment’, Weber) Urban Planning – ‘Grand Visions’ – Howard’s Garden City (1890’s onwards), Le Corbusier’s Rational/Geometric City (1920’s +) Modern Cities - High Rise, Homogeneity & Disenchantment, Garden Suburbs, ‘New Towns’, Sprawl, MMR New Urbanism – customary neighborhood outline/against pioneer hostile to - sprawl and so forth (see Jacobs) Postmodern City (Derrida, Foucault, Baudrillard) & ‘Fantasy City’ (Hannigan) – Re-charm of space? Worldwide Cities – Homogeneity, Rational/Functional Spaces with ‘Enchanted’ Veneer, Glocalization

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WK 11 Global City Defining Globalization – see additionally Robertson’s periods of globalization ‘The World City’ (Friedmann), ‘The Global City’ (Sassen), ‘Information City’ & ‘Space of Flows’ (Castells) Restructuring the Economy of the Global City: ‘Developed’ Economies – Deindustrialisation (movement to IT, Financial Services and different types of Commercial/Service industry) The Global Labor Market & The New Migrant City – ‘Offshoring/’Inshoring’ - Global Movements & Migrant Cities Life & Work in Global City (Developed) : Polarization (Sassen), ‘Brazilianization’ (Beck), Flexibility, End of Work ( Rifkin) Life & Work in Global City (Developing) : Rapid

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