Hydrogen Fuel Cell Bus Fleets .


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Hydrogen Fuel Cell Bus Fleets. POLICY DESCRIPTION #1 The use of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel :. For the short term diminishes our reliance on imported oil and ensures a more secure energy future. http://www.dpi.wa.gov.au/fuelcells/faqs.html.
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Hydrogen Fuel Cell Bus Fleets

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POLICY DESCRIPTION #1 The utilization of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel : For the transient reduces our dependence on imported oil and guarantees a more secure vitality future. http://www.dpi.wa.gov.au/fuelcells/faqs.html

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POLICY DESCRIPTION #2 The utilization of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel : In the long run conveys us one stage nearer to the "hydrogen economy" hydrogen http://www.ott.doe.gov/pdfs/trb2000.pdf

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Hydrogen is the most plenteous component in the universe, be that as it may, it doesn\'t exist in it\'s unadulterated shape on earth. It must be extricated. The objective is to concentrate hydrogen neatly - maintaining a strategic distance from the contamination that originates from depending on a carbon fuel as the vitality bearer. What is the objective of the "hydrogen economy?" http://www.dpi.wa.gov.au/fuelcells/hydrotech.html http://www.h2fuelcells.org/commentary1_1.html

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Why would it be advisable for us to seek after the "hydrogen economy?" #1 Domestic fossil fuel supply is down http://www.phoenixproject.net/abstract.pdf

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Energy utilization will probably rise exponentially Why would it be a good idea for us to seek after the "hydrogen economy?" #2 http://www.phoenixproject.net/abstract.pdf

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Where are we getting our hydrogen from today? http://www.dpi.wa.gov.au/fuelcells/hydrotech.html http://www.h2fuelcells.org/commentary1_1.html

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Why not get hydrogen from other fossil fills? #1 Natural Gas is possibly the most copious fossil fuel http://www.ott.doe.gov/pdfs/trb2000.pdf

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Why not get hydrogen from other fossil energizes? #2 The far reaching existing framework for conveying gas makes even that filthy fuel a choice. http://www.h2fuelcells.org/commentary1_1.html http://mail.infomagic.net/fdsc/servicestationglare.htm

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Why not get hydrogen from renewables? #1 Although the innovation is readily available, renewable hydrogen is right now excessively costly http://www.ott.doe.gov/pdfs/trb2000.pdf

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Why not get hydrogen from renewables? #2 For the long run, we must keep our eyes on the prize. http://www.nmsea.org/Curriculum/7_12/electrolysis/electrolysis.htm http://www.h2fuelcells.org/commentary1_1.html

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There are three principle obstructions to hydrogen power device transport armadas: Supply Costs Infrastructure Development Safety SUMMARY OF PROBLEMS

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Supply costs incorporate : Hydrogen Fuel Costs Bus Costs Cost of Facilities Problem #1 : Supply Costs

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The most efficient hydrogen filling situations cost around $15-20/GJ conveyed to the vehicle (without expenses), which is a few times more than gas before assessments. As indicated by EIA vitality value projections, electrolyzer-based hydrogen generation is exorbitant, bringing about a hydrogen cost of around $40/GJ (without assessments). Issue #1(A) : Hydrogen Fuel Costs The Energy Information Agency (EIA) is a piece of the DOE http://www-db.research.anl.gov/db1/cartech/record/DDD/192.pdf http://www.cartech.doe.gov/look into/fills/best-fuels.html

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The transports will be excessively expensive until they can be mass created Problem #1(B) : Bus Costs http://www.hfcletter.com/letter/february01/feature.html

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Cost of Compressing H 2 Problem #1(C) : Cost of Facilities http://www.cai-infopool.org/downloads/energy component transport assessment sunline.pdf

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Problem #1(C) : Cost of Facilities Cost of Storing H 2 http://www.cai-infopool.org/downloads/energy unit transport assessment sunline.pdf

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Problem #1(C) : Cost of Facilities Cost of Dispensing H 2 http://www.cai-infopool.org/downloads/energy component transport assessment sunline.pdf http://www.hygen.com/solar_hydrogen_vehicle_project.htm

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Problem #1(C) : Cost of Facilities Cost of Maintenance Facilities http://www.cai-infopool.org/downloads/power device transport assessment sunline.pdf http://www.rio02.de/procedures/ppt/217_Schettino.pdf

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Problem #1(C) : Cost of Facilities Significant startup expenses are required http://www.cai-infopool.org/downloads/power module transport assessment sunline.pdf

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Infrastructure advancement incorporates : Technology Providers Refueling Station Investment General Investment Problem #2 : Infrastructure Development

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Two fundamental innovation suppliers are : Ballard Power Systems Inc. MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG Problem #2(A) : Technology Providers

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The DaimlerChrysler "New Electric Bus" astonishingly exhibited the potential outcomes of energy units in the substantial obligation segment The "Nebus" Ballard Power Systems Inc. #1 http://www.ballard.com/tD.asp?pgid=26&dbid=0

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Three nearby transports in Chicago and three in Vancouver, utilizing Ballard energy unit motors demonstrated their proficiency in regular operation amid two separate two-year test programs. All in all these six transports went more than 73,000 miles in income benefit continuing 200,000 travelers. The "P3 Bus" Ballard Power Systems Inc. #2 http://www.ballard.com/tD.asp?pgid=26&dbid=0

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The ZEbus was shown with the SunLine Transit Agency for a one-year time span in Thousand Palms, California, as a major aspect of the California Fuel Cell Partnership. The "ZEbus" Ballard Power Systems Inc. #3 http://www.ballard.com/tD.asp?pgid=26&dbid=0

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Ballard started conveyance of power device transport motors in late 2002 for the 30 Mercedes-Benz Citaro transports to be utilized as a part of the European Fuel Cell Bus Project. These transports will be conveyed to 10 European urban communities starting in 2003 as the EU drives the path in the appropriation of zero-emanation energy component innovation. The "Citaro Fuel Cell Bus" Ballard Power Systems Inc. #4 http://www.ballard.com/tD.asp?pgid=26&dbid=0

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The "Citaro Fuel Cell Bus" Citaro Fuel Cell Busses will likewise be working in Perth, Western Australia Ballard Power Systems Inc. #5 http://www.dpi.wa.gov.au/fuelcells/technology.html

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MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG #1 MAN AG has been giving hydrogen transport innovation, essentially in Munich, Germany, since 1996 http://www.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/hydrogen/iea/pdfs/bavarian_proj.pdf

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MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG #2 MAN AG\'s latest venture is for a Berlin, Lisbon, and Copenhagen transport trial. In the event that effective, transformation of an expansive bit of the transport armada and a stationary filling station will be actualized. http://www.eihp.org/eihp1/workshop/specialists/bvg/start.html http://www.bizspaceautomobile.com/fuel_cell_bus.htm

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MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG #3 http://www.bizspaceautomobile.com/fuel_cell_bus.htm http://www.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/hydrogen/iea/pdfs/bavarian_proj.pdf

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Problem #2(A) : Technology Providers Just like the principal autos, energy component transports have not yet accomplished a standard outline. The energy component transports in presence overall demonstrate an extensive variety of specialized arrangements on the grounds that the car provider base is just as yet shaping. http://www.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/hydrogen/iea/pdfs/bavarian_proj.pdf

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Problem #2(A) : Technology Providers However, the provider base is framing http://www.dpi.wa.gov.au/fuelcells/presentations/hamburg/page30.html

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Refueling stations can be either convenient or stationary. The refueling station framework is gradually turning into a reality. Issue #2(B) : Refueling Station Investment

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Munich airplane terminal\'s new hydrogen filling station In June 1999, a $18 million hydrogen generation & powering station opened at the Munich Airport Problem #2(B) : Refueling Station Investment http://www.hfcletter.com/letter/june99/feature.html

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In October 2002, two new hydrogen energizing stations opened in CA and Germany. In November 2002, a third opened in Nevada. More destinations around Los Angeles are moving towards endorsement, and filling gear is starting to be requested for Europe\'s 10-city energy component urban transport extend. The most recent expansion to the developing number of hydrogen filling offices worldwide is situated in Richmond, CA Problem #2(B) : Refueling Station Investment http://www.hfcletter.com/letter/November02/features.html

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Problem #2(B) : Refueling Station Investment In July 2001, the primary sun based controlled hydrogen creation and energizing station in the Los Angeles region was opened by American Honda Motor Co. http://www.hfcletter.com/letter/august01/

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Problem #2(B) : Refueling Station Investment A sun oriented controlled, changeless hydrogen energizing station utilizing electrolysis is the perfect situation. http://www-building.arct.cam.ac.uk/westc/pv/pv.html

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Clean Air Now Project (1995-1997) Over a time of two years, Stuart Energy filled an armada of hydrogen vehicles at Xerox\'s site in El Segundo, California, utilizing hydrogen created from sun based power. Stuart Energy Refueling Facilities #1 http://www.stuartenergy.com/main_trans.html

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Coast Mountain Transit Project (1998-2000) Stuart Energy powered three hydrogen power device transports utilized by Coast Mountain Transit as a part of its standard armada in the city of Vancouver. Stuart Energy Refueling Facilities #2 http://www.stuartenergy.com/main_trans.html

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SunLine Transit (2000-) In California, Stuart Energy is giving hydrogen fuel to SunLine Transit Agency for a power device transport. To meet the hydrogen needs of members of the California Fuel Cell Partnership, the Stuart Energy fueler will be accessible to the general population for refueling as hydrogen autos are presented in the zone. Stuart Energy Refueling Facilities #3 http://www.stuartenergy.com/main_trans.html

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B.C. Hydro-Powertech Labs & NRC Fuel Cell Technology Center (2001-) In Surrey and Vancouver, B.C., to illustrate: the advantages of compacted hydrogen as a vehicle fuel, and water electrolysis as the favored innovation for producing that hydrogen. Stuart Energy Refueling Facilities #4 http://www.stuartenergy.com/main_trans.html

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Ford Motor Company (2001-) To the Ford Motor Company in Dearborn, Michigan. Portage will lead assessments

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