HYDROGEN FUEL CELLS .


82 views
Uploaded on:
Description
HYDROGEN FUEL CELLS. CURRENT AND FUTURE DESIGNS USE AS AN ENERGY STORAGE DEVICE RENEWABLE VS. CO2 GENERATING DISTRIBUTION METHODS AND COSTS SAFETY. Molecular Hydrogen Facts. Three times energy content of gasoline (120 Mj/kg vs. 44Mj/kg)
Transcripts
Slide 1

HYDROGEN FUEL CELLS CURRENT AND FUTURE DESIGNS USE AS AN ENERGY STORAGE DEVICE RENEWABLE VS. CO2 GENERATING DISTRIBUTION METHODS AND COSTS SAFETY

Slide 2

Molecular Hydrogen Facts Three circumstances vitality substance of gas (120 Mj/kg versus 44Mj/kg) Cost of melting it is 30 to 40% of its vitality content Pipelines are half more prominent distance across than for gas (for identical vitality transmission rate), so more $. Circulation pairs cost of generation ($1.03/kg). Combustible fixation has a broad from 4% to 75%.

Slide 3

Types of Fuel Cells Phosphoric Acid energy units: just industrially accessible. Since 1991, 250 units sold (until 2004). $4500/kW Proton Exchange Membrane power modules. Vehicle transportation technique on the grounds that 25kW to 150kw size. Beta testing at $1500/kW by UTC Fuel Cells. Strong Oxide power devices. Right now work utilizing regular gas, yet could utilize H. Dissimilar to those over, no honorable metals. Can work up to 1000 c.

Slide 4

Molecular Hydrogen Generation Three distinct sizes of era: Central Station, Midsize, and Distributed. Focal Station: 1,080,000 kg/day would bolster 2M autos. Disseminated by pipeline. Produced by fossil fuel or atomic vitality. Moderate size: 21,600 kg/day would bolster 40k autos. Dispersed by cryogenic truck. Created by characteristic gas or biomass Distributed: 480 kg/day would bolster 800 autos. No dispersion framework required. Renewable powers utilized.

Slide 5

Hydrogen Generation Electrolysis: from fossil powers or renewable vitality sources Fossil Fuels requires carbon sequestering (next slide) Hydroelectric, Nuclear Energy, Photovoltaic, network based vitality, wind control, have either occasional era, which may not coordinate utilization, or have consistent era, which does not coordinate use. Vitality stockpiling at pinnacle times is an issue for these vitality sources that hydrogen era could tackle. Fetched for all disseminated (renewable) sources is two to five circumstances cost of gas (2004)

Slide 6

Carbon Dioxide Sequestering No favorable position to Hydrogen generation from fossil fills similarly as decreasing Carbon Dioxide is concerned. However this is the least expensive strategy to produce Hydogen. Right now, just 4% of Hydrogen is from electrolysis; the rest is from coal, oil and common gas, which contains around 10% CO2 and in addition the Hydrogen. Norway infuses CO2 into saline aquifer. Los Alamos investigation of CO2 infusion into magnesium arrangements (Peridotites, serpentinite, Gabbro, and Basalt) Costs about $8 per ton of CO2 arranged. Perpetual and no legacy issues for future eras.

Slide 7

CO2 and Hydrogen from fossil powers Small increment in cost to catch CO2 when hydrogen created by fossil fills. Utilizing coal as feedstock, sulfur caught alongside CO2. CO2 sequestering and capacity costs about $4.00/barrel of oil, $24/ton of coal, $0.54/cubic feet of normal gas. New foundation required to exchange CO2 from H2 creation to capacity. Profound sea as of now stores CO2, may surrender it with warming. World\'s natural stockpiling now 700 billion tons. To twofold this stockpiling would require multiplying vegetation.

Slide 8

Hydrogen generation advances From characteristic gas. As of now import regular gas. H transformation from methane by steam improving, produces CO as well. On the off chance that normal gas costs $6.50/Btu, H costs $3.51/kg From Coal. Enough to last 200yrs. Produces the most CO2 for a similar H. Gasification produces syngas. Research may get expenses to $0.90/kg. From atomic vitality. Water part by electrolysis or thermochemical prepare. Require temps of 700 to 1000 c. No CO2. No cost gauges. Electrolysis. Generally costly. Utilize proton trade film( PEM) or fluid electrolyte (KOH).

Slide 9

Hydrogen creation - Renewable energizes From wind vitality. Electrolyze water. Wind is the most practical renewable vitality source: $0.04 to $0.07/kWh costs about $6.64/kg per H2 if matrix go down utilized. From Biomass. Just 0.2 to 0.4% of sun powered vitality changed over to H2. Costs $7.05/kg by gasification, excluding composts and land debasement. From Solar vitality. Either by electrolysis (Photo voltaic) or utilizing photoelectrochemical cell (in an early phase of advancement). Taken a toll now is $28.19/kg and sunlight based vitality is just accessible 20% of the time.

Slide 10

Hydrogen security Small release more combustible than for gas, yet more prone to scatter, so start more improbable. Static start can touch off, so ground amid exchange. Explosion more probable than with gas due to more extensive combustible fixation and higher fire speed. Require high weight to exchange productively: 5-10k psi. Scentless, smolders with a blue fire. Little particle blocks including fragrance atom.

Recommended
View more...