Hydrogen Storage .

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Hydrogen Basics. Douglas Conde. Hydrogen Basics. Hydrogen Gas (H2).Very reactive.Most Common component in the universe.Never run out.. Hydrogen Basics Cont.. Hydrogen Basics Cont.. Does not poolDissipates quicklyBurns without hazardous vaporsInvisible fire. Vitality Content Comparison. Pound for Pound Hydrogen packs the most punch..
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Hydrogen Storage

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Hydrogen Basics Douglas Conde

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Hydrogen Basics Hydrogen Gas (H 2 ). Exceptionally receptive. Most Common component in the universe. Never run out.

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Hydrogen Basics Cont.

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Hydrogen Basics Cont. Does not pool Dissipates rapidly Burns without hazardous vapors Invisible fire

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Energy Content Comparison Pound for Pound Hydrogen packs the most punch.

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The Great Barrier of Hydrogen Storage

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Current Storage Inadaquete Cost Weight and Volume Efficiency Durability Refueling Time Codes and Standards Life-cycle and Efficiency Analyses

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Department of Energy Objectives BY 2005, create and confirm on-load up hydrogen stockpiling frameworks accomplishing 1.5 kWh/kg (4.5 wt%), 1.2 kWh/L, and $6/kWh by 2005 By 2010, create and check on-load up hydrogen stockpiling frameworks accomplishing 2 kWh/kg (6 wt%), 1.5 kWh/L, and $4/kWh. By 2015, create and check on-board hydrogen stockpiling frameworks accomplishing 3 kWh/kg (9 wt%), 2.7 kWh/L, and $2/kWh. By 2015, create and check minimal effort, off-board hydrogen stockpiling frameworks, as required for hydrogen foundation needs to bolster transportation, stationary and convenient power markets.

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Current DOE Projects

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Current Costs

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Current Storage Technologies Low and High-Pressure Gas Liquid Metal Hydrides Chemical Hydrides Physisorption Current Methods

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Gaseous Hydrogen Storage H 2 gas tanks are the most demonstrated of hydrogen stockpiling advancements. Carbon-fiber-fortified. Up to 10,000 psi. High weight tanks exhibit security peril. Worries over Hydrogen/tank atomic cooperations prompt to embitterment.

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Hydrogen Gas Storage Commercially accessible Cannot coordinate gas for vitality minimization

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Hydrogen Gas: Bulky Storage Higher Pressure, more vitality per unit volume. Fuel = 34.656 MJ/L Uncompressed Hydrogen 10.7 kJ/L

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Liquid Hydrogen BMW working with on board fluid hydrogen for vehicles. Likely capacity for bigger applications, for example, transportation or generation stockpiling. Very vitality serious to condense. Worries over security because of amazingly icy temperatures.

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Liquid Hydrogen: High Pressure low tempature. (22K at 1 ATM)

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Liquefaction of Hydrogen gas The Joule-Thompson Cycle Energy required is as of now 1/3 of the vitality put away

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Liquid Storage Options Non Portable Liquid Hydrogen Storage No approach to avert Boil off. Round Tanks. More suited for transportation and non vehicular capacity. 8.4 MJ/L double the thickness of compacted H 2

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Wrap up: DOE Targets

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Metal Hydrides

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Interstitial Hydrogen Absorption

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Temperature and Pressure Range of Various Hydrides

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Metal Hydride Families Conventional Metal Hydrides (Naturally reversible) AB 5 most normal (NiMH batteries) (1-1.25 rev wt%) AB 2 exceptionally normal (1.3 rev wt%) AB (TiFe - 1.5 rev wt%) A 2 B (Mg 2 NiH 4 - 3.3 rev wt%) AB 3 , A 2 B 7 Complex Hydrides (Naturally irreversible) Catalysts and dopants used to destabilize hydride stage Two sorts Transition Metal Mg 2 FeH 6 (5.5% max wt%) Non-move metal Be(BH 4 ) 2 (20.8% max wt%) NaAlH 4 (4.2% rev wt%, 5.6 th rev wt%) (110C)

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Remaining Issues Reversible limit Reaction weight and temperature Absorption/Desorption rates Cyclic soundness Reactive with air and water

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Chemical Hydrides

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Chemical Hydrides NaH, LiH, NaAlH4, NaBH4, LiBH4, CaH2 Advantages/Disadvantages

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Hydrogen Storage by Physisorption Graphite Nanofibers Nanotubes Zeolites Henry S Grasshorn Gebhardt

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The answer for putting away hydrogen, some say, is to "placed rocks into your tank."

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Graphite Nanofibers Inconsistent outcomes: 0.08 wt.% to 60 wt.% Most likely up to 10-13 wt.% Lots of research required (a) Herringbone, (b) Tubular, (c) Platelet

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Maximum of 15 wt.%

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Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotubes Giant Molecules Length: a couple of microns Inner Diameter: 2-10 nm Outer Diameter: 15-30 nm Much bigger MWNTs have been watched. Very little H 2 adsorption?

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Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes Lots of little micropores Minimal macroporosity High warm conductivity → Bundled SWNTs

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Where the H 2 would be... Greatest of ~8 wt.%, or, ~1 H-particle for each C-iota.

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Doped Nanotubes Transition metals and amalgams Boron and Nitrogen Other components Possibility of tuning the adsorption and desorption to the craved temperature. Preparatory: ~1 wt.% without improvement.

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Were these truly ingestion/desorption of water instead of H 2 ?

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Zeolites A particle (Na + ) serves as an "entryway" to micropores: Lower temp.: shut Higher temp.: open Temperature contrast is little for a few zeolites Si and Al.

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Hydrogen take-up in Zeolites Most of the countless zeolites haven\'t been examined yet in this regard. No less than 2 wt.%

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Automobiles Testing with Hydrogen Fuel Toyota, Ford, BMW, Honda, Nissan, United Nuclear

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Toyota => FCHV-4 Vehicle Maximum speed ~ 95 mph Cruising separation = Over 155 miles Seating limit = 5 people Fuel cell stack Type = Polymer electrolyte power device Output = 120 HP (90 kW) Motor Type = Permanent magnet Maximum yield = 107 HP (80 kW) Maximum torque = 191 lb-ft (260 Nm) Fuel Type = Pure hydrogen Storage technique = High-weight hydrogen capacity tank Maximum stockpiling weight = 3,600 PSI Secondary battery   Nickel-metal hydride battery

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Ford => Model U Performance Engine pull: 118 hp (88 kW) at 4,500 rpm MHTS help: 33 hp (25 kW) continuous/46 hp (35 kW) top Total joined drive: 151 hp (113 kW) at 4,500 rpm Torque: 154 foot-pounds: (210 Nm) at 4,000 rpm Estimated mileage: 45 miles for each kg hydrogen (= to 45 mpg gas) Emissions: PZEV or better Powertrain Hydrogen 2.3-liter ICE with supercharging and double stage intercooling Modular Hybrid Transmission System

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BMW => 745h testing with the basic standards of nature fluid hydrogen is created from vitality and water in motors - the hydrogen combusts with oxygen - > comes back to water spins through this procedure to fuel the auto

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Honda => FCX ENGINE Motor Type = AC Synchronous Electric Motor (permanent magnet) Maximum Output (strength) = 80 Fuel Cell Stack Type = PEFC (polymer electrolyte energy component) Fuel Cell Maximum Output (kW)* = 78 Maximum Speed (mph) = 93 Vehicle Range (miles, EPA mode) = 160 . FUEL Type = Compressed hydrogen gas Storage = High-weight hydrogen tank Tank Capacity (L) = 156.6 Gas Volume when Full (kg) = 3.8 Maximum Pressure when Full (PSI) = 5000.0

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Nissan => X-TRAIL FCV Vehicle Seating limit = 5 Top speed (km/h) = 145 Cruising range (km) = Over 350 Motor Type = Coaxial engine coordinated with reduction equip Maximum control (kW) = 85 Fuel cell stack Fuel cell = Solid polymer electrolyte sort Maximum control (kW) = 63 Supplier = UTC Fuel Cells (USA) Storage battery Type = Compact Lithium-particle Battery Fueling framework Fuel sort = Compressed hydrogen gas Max. charging weight (MPa) = 35

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United Nuclear took a 1994 Corvette and made a hydrogen fuel framework Driving extent is 700+ miles for every load with a close to zero fuel cost

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United Nuclear stores the hydrogen in hydride tanks, which assimilate the hydrogen like a wipe drenching up water this is really a more secure stockpiling framework than a gas tank is

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