IAEA CONSULTANCY MEETING ON Creative Little Atomic REACTORS WITHOUT On location Refueling.


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Schematic outline of the altered/fluidized bed atomic reactor idea. ... Manufacture and testing of the fuel essential for the atomic test. ...
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IAEA CONSULTANCY MEETING ON INNOVATIVE SMALL NUCLEAR REACTORS WITHOUT ON-SITE Refueling Development patterns, inactive wellbeing plans choices, requirements for R&D co-appointment March15-17, 2004 Fixed Bed Nuclear Reactor Concept (FBNR) Or A Small Simple IAEA Reactor - ASSIR Farhang Sefidvash Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul Porto Alegre, Brazil farhang@ufrgs.br

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Schematic graph of the settled/fluidized bed atomic reactor idea. (1) auxiliary bolster; (2) pressure driven valve opener; (3) fuel release valve; (4) graphite coat; (5) reactor center; (6) level limiter shaft; (7) depressurizer; (8) steam exit; (9) level limiter drive; (10) fuel nourish; (11) pressurizer; (12) water passageway; (13) steam generator; (14) level limiter; (15) safeguard shell; (16) hexagonal channel; (17) fluidization tube; (18) round channel; (19) fuel load; (20) merchant (21) passage perfurations; (22) coolant passage; (23) coolant exit; (24) essential pump; (25) reflector; (26) natural shield, (27).fixed bed center, (28) fluidized bed center, (29) spent fuel pool.

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One Module of the Reactor

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Some of the Characteristics of the Proposed Reactor The Fixed Bed Nuclear Reactor (FBNR) depends on the pressurized light water reactor (PWR) innovation. FBNR is straightforward in outline. FBNR is a little reactor. FBNR is a measured reactor. FBNR is an inalienably safe reactor. FBNR is an inactively cooled reactor. FBNR is an incorporated essential circuit reactor. The reactor center is suspended by the stream of water coolant. The stop in stream causes the fuel components to leave the reactor center by the power of gravity. FBNR in its propelled variant can utilize supercritical steam or helium gas as coolant, and may use MOX or thorium fuel. It might likewise be a fluidized bed atomic reactor.

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Fuel Options Two choices are proposed: 1.      A 8 mm distance across round fuel component made of uranium dioxide with the thickness of 10.5 g/cm3, cladded by zircaloy and cooled by pressurized water. 2.      A 8 mm width round fuel component made of compacted Micro-Fuel-Elements  (MFE) with the thickness of 5.9 g/cm3, cladded by silicon carbide and cooled by pressurized water. MFE are covered particles and are like TRISO fuel with external distances across around 2 mm.  They comprise of  1.5 -  1.64 mm width uranium dioxide circles covered with 3 layers.  The inward layer is of 0.09 mm thick permeable pyrolytic carbide (PYC) with thickness of 1 g/cm3 called a cradle layer, giving space to vaporous splitting products.  The second layer is of 0.02 mm thick PYC (thickness of 1.8 g/cm3) and the external layer is 0.07 -0.1  mm thick erosion safe silicon carbide (SiC).  Ceramic security movies, fabricated by compound vapor statement (CVD) strategy, make resistance of graphite segments against water  and steam at high temperatures (450°- 550° C at ordinary working conditions and up to 1400° C  at inadvertent conditions ).  Small fuel components can limit parting items inconclusively at a temperature under 1400° C.

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Core Level Limiter Core center Fuel Chamber (high neutron safeguard tube) Very Small Reactor Option Fig. 1: Pressurized water streams upward through the 10 cm width fuel chamber made of exceptionally neutron engrossing amalgam. At that point it goes through the 25 cm distance across center of the module. In the wake of engrossing warmth from the center, it goes through the sifter and an incorporated warmth exchanger of shell and tube sort. From there on, it returns down through the space between the tubes back to the pump and merchant. For point by point depiction see www.rcgg.ufrgs./fbnr .

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Fig.2: Reactor in working condition . The 8 mm distance across round fuel components are out of the fuel load and are in the center. The center is in basic condition. The store reactivity contains in the additional fuel components that are left in the fuel chamber. A fine control pole might be presented at the focal point of the module if it important.

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Fig.3: During close down or mishap conditions . The pump is killed naturally, so the fuel components fall again into the fuel chamber through the power of gravity.

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Fig.4: Shut down condition . The center is vacant and the fuel components are put away in the fuel chamber in an exceedingly sub basic condition. The rot warmth is scattered through common convection.

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Core Level Limiter Fuel Chamber (high nêutron safeguard tube) Small Reactor Option Fig.5: This alternative diminishes the coolant weight misfortune in the settled bed. The pressurized water streams upward through the 10 cm measurement fuel chamber made of exceptionally neutron engrossing combination. At that point it enters the 25 cm distance across center of the module. It streams up into the punctured focal tube and from that point streams on a level plane through the fuel components. In the wake of retaining warmth from the center, streams upward going through an incorporated warmth exchanger of shell and tube sort. From that point, it returns down the space between the tubes back to the pump and wholesaler. For itemized depiction see www.rcgg.ufrgs./fbnr .

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Fig.6: Reactor in working condition . The 8 mm width round fuel components are out of the fuel load and are in the center. The center is in basic condition. The store reactivity contains in the additional fuel components that are left in the fuel chamber. A fine control bar might be presented at the focal point of the module if it important.

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Fig.7: During close down or mischance conditions . The pump is killed consequently, so the fuel components fall again into the fuel chamber through the power of gravity.

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Fig.8: Shut down condition . The center is void and the fuel components are put away in the fuel chamber in a very sub basic condition. The rot warmth is dispersed through regular convection.

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Fig.9: The weight that holds the settled bed together as an element of coolant speed.

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Fig.10: As the fuel components leave the reactor and the center tallness diminishes, the reactivity diminishes because of the impact of neutron spillage. Here are varieties for the reactor breadths of 50 and 150 Cm.

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Fig. 11: The reactor power created as a component of picked coolant speed for a 150 Cm width reactor. A coolant temperature ascent of 40 C is expected.

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Fig.12: Pump power division expected to pump coolant through a 1 m stature bed as capacity of coolant speed.

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Fig.13: Pump power division expected to pump coolant through a 0,1 m tallness bed as capacity of coolant speed.

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Inherent Safety & Passive Cooling The reactor center is suspended by the stream of water coolant. The stop in stream causes the fuel components to leave the reactor center by the power of gravity and enter the fuel chamber. The fuel chamber is an exceedingly subcritical gathering cooled by normal convection. Location of any sign because of a mishap cuts the force from coolant pump.

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Waste & Environmental Impact Its spent fuel is in such a helpful shape and size that might be used straightforwardly as the hotspot for illumination and applications in agribusiness and industry. This component results in a positive effect on waste administration and natural insurance.

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Scope of a Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) for the constuction of the PROTOTYPE of the REACTOR Preparation of the calculated outline of the picked alternative or choices. Constuction of a full size non-atomic pressure driven module to check the power through pressure conduct and decide the fundamental parameters. Acknowledgment of neutronics, warm power through pressure, and auxiliary counts. Manufacture and testing of the fuel important for the atomic trial. Building outline of the model of the reactor. Execution of a zero force explore different avenues regarding one module in an atomic exploratory office. Development of the single module model.

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WORK PLAN FOR A COORDINATED RESEARCH PROJECT CALCULATIONS Neutronics computations (using existing PWR codes chosing circular fuel alternative for cross area counts). Warm Hydraulics counts (utilizig adjusted PWR codes which may require a few confirmations). Auxiliary figurings.

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WORK PLAN FOR A COORDINATED RESEARCH PROJECT NON-NUCLEAR EXPERIMENT: Construct a full size pressure driven module to watch the conduct of the dummy fuel components in the reactor: Obtain a 25 and a 10 cm measurement straightforward tubes produced using glass or plexiglas. Get 8 mm steel balls normally utilized as a part of "ball-bearing" manufacture. Acquire a 23 and a 3 cm breadth perfurated straightforward tubes. Give a flowmeter, a weight gage, and a control valve. Measure the weight misfortune as a fuction of stream rate and watch the bahavior of the circles in the settled bed by video-taping the procedure.

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WORK PLAN FOR A COORDINATED RESEARCH PROJECT NUCLEAR EXPERIMENTS: FUEL FABRICATION Obtain UO2 pellets utilized as a part of traditional PWR. Grind the tube shaped pellets to frame 8 mm measurement round pellets. Stamp out hemispherical shells from a zircaloy sheet. Press two hemispherical shells against each other with a pellet between them. At that point pass an electric current to weld them together in an environment of helium at high weight. Check the helium spillage from the fuel component by a He-indicator to perform quality control.

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WORK PLAN FOR A COORDINATED RESEARCH PROJECT NUCLEAR EXPERIMENTS: MODULE FABRICATION Obtain a 25 cm distance across zircaloy tube. Acquire a 10 cm measurement stainless steel tube cladded by profoundly neutron engrossing materials. Get a 23 and 3 cm measurement perfurated zircaloy tubes. Rent an exploration office, for example, LR-0 office of UJV in Slovania to perfom full atomic analyses at zero force utilizing one reactor module.

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WORK PLAN FOR A COORDINATED RE

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