Impacts of ACC substantial obligation vehicles in blended movement: ecological impacts.


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Impacts of ACC substantial obligation vehicles in blended activity: natural impacts by Margareta Stefanovic and Petros Ioannou Community for Cutting edge Transportation Innovations College of Southern California Los Angeles, CA 90089 http://www.usc.edu/dept/ee/catt Layout OF PRESENTATION Inspiration
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Impacts of ACC substantial obligation vehicles in blended activity: natural impacts by Margareta Stefanovic and Petros Ioannou Center for Advanced Transportation Technologies University of Southern California Los Angeles, CA 90089 http://www.usc.edu/dept/ee/catt PATH Annual Conference October 2002

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OUTLINE OF PRESENTATION Motivation Truck model ACC control law Human Driver Model Vehicle Following in Mixed Manual/ACC Passenger Cars/HDV Traffic Lane Change Effects Conclusions PATH Annual Conference October 2002

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Motivation Several controllers for velocity following and vehicle taking after for HDV’s have been composed and tried as of late (e.g. by UCLA examination bunch). They exhibited nearby and string security and close vehicle taking after even on account of substantial actuator delays. The controllers were tried for execution in HDV units, intended to work in devoted paths. Of enthusiasm here is the effect of the blended manual/ACC traveler auto/HDV movement on activity stream qualities. What is the impact of ACC HDV’s on ecological contamination and fuel effectiveness? Comparative study for traveler autos was directed under MOU 392 and TO 4217. Huge hole shaped before the truck (both ACC and manual) in high quickening moves offers ascend to cut-ins before the truck and possibly hazardous circumstances. What is the effect on movement stream attributes and discharge when trucks are ACC prepared? * D.Yanakiev, J. Eyre and I. Kanellakopoulos: “Analysis, Design, and Evaluation of AVCS for Heavy-Duty Vehicles with Actuator Delays: Final Report for MOU 240”, California PATH Research Report UCB-ITS_PRR-98-18 PATH Annual Conference October 2002

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Truck model Complex nonlinear model of the longitudinal truck motion was gathered by the UCLA bunch. After linearization and disregarding of quick modes a basic 1 st request direct model is acquired: - truck longitudinal velocity - fuel/brake control info d - unsettling influence parameters a , b rely on upon the working point (unfaltering state rate and the heap torque) around which the framework progress is linearized. Way Annual Conference October 2002

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- Based on the linearized model, different longitudinal controllers for vehicle taking after had been created and tried for strength and execution . - Among a few such controllers we select a basic settled increase PID controller, as it was demonstrated that, with the fitting decision of control parameters and dividing arrangements, dependability and great execution of vehicle taking after are accomplished, while the controller multifaceted nature is incredibly diminished.. Control goal Regulate to zero relative speed v r and detachment lapse  : - fancied between vehicle satisfying so as to disperse This is accomplished: ( k - outline parameter (consistent or shifting) tuned by execution prerequisites. Way Annual Conference October 2002

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ACC controller - We select an altered increase PID control law with the surmised subordinate term: Spacing strategies: - variable time progress: if acquainted with diminish the enduring state between vehicle dividing and to smooth the control activity, and : - variable position blunder addition: included to restrain the quickening/deceleration that outcomes from the expansive separating slip. Note that exponential term in k has a quadratic reliance on the position blunder Î\' . Way Annual Conference October 2002

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Truck Human Driver Model There exists a mixed bag of human driver vehicle taking after models for the traveler vehicles. Not very many of them are intended for substantial vehicles. The Bando * vehicle taking after model: V(  x) is the craved safe speed, controlled by the accompanying separation from the first vehicle , and has a sigmoid shape: in ** this model is changed to be utilized for trucks as a part of the accompanying sense: lower affectability of the HDD vehicle because of its lower activation to-weight proportion is represented in the littler affectability steady an (ordinarily 0.8 or less versus 1.5 – 5 for autos). * M. Bando et al: “Dynamical Model of Traffic Congestion and numerical simulation”, Physical Review E, Vol. 51, N 0 2, February 1995 ** A.Mason and A.Woods: “Car-Following Model of Multi-species Systems of Road Traffic”, Physical Review E, Vol. 55, N 0 3, March 1997. Way Annual Conference October 2002

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- We change Bando model further, to represent the way that the truck driver can see promote away when he takes after the traveler autos in front of him: Instead of relying upon the accompanying separation from the promptly going before vehicle just, the fancied safe speed is accepted to rely on upon two (or more) vehicles ahead, e.g.: The proportionality steady  (0 <  <1) is picked so that the affectability as to the quickly going before vehicle has the most astounding weight ( > 0.5 in the above mathematical statement). Way Annual Conference October 2002

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Vehicle Following in Mixed Manual/ACC Passenger Cars/HDV Traffic Consider an armada of ten vehicles in a solitary path, nine of which are manual traveler autos, and one is ACC truck. Proposed parameters from UCLA bunch * : c k = 0.1, k 0 = 1, σ = 0.1, H 0 = 0.1, c h =0.2 Kp =150, Ki=3, Kd=20 Our tuned parameters: c k = 0.01, k 0 = 0.2, σ = 1, H 0 = 0.4, c h =0.2 Kp=110, Ki=1, Kd=100 Exponential term in position slip addition is decided to have a parabolical reliance on the position lapse, as proposed in * . For low increasing speeds of the first vehicles, the actuator of the ACC does not immerse, and the control activity that is charged results in a steady truck conduct, with close vehicle taking after, as seen from the figures underneath: * D.Yanakiev, J. Eyre and I. Kanellakopoulos: “Analysis, Design, and Evaluation of AVCS for Heavy-Duty Vehicles with Actuator Delays: Final Report for MOU 240”, California PATH Research Report UCB-ITS_PRR-98-18 PATH Annual Conference October 2002

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Vehicle Following in Mixed Manual/ACC Passenger Cars/HDV Traffic Speed reactions for the blended manual/ACC activity (4 th vehicle is ACC truck, the rest are manual traveler autos) Position blunder versus time for the ACC PATH Annual Conference October 2002

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Vehicle Following in Mixed Manual/ACC Passenger Cars/HDV Traffic Speed reactions for the 100% manual activity (4 th vehicle is physically determined truck) PATH Annual Conference October 2002

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Vehicle Following in Mixed Manual/ACC Passenger Cars/HDV Traffic - This decision of practical reliance of position lapse pick up k on the position slip is advocated for moderately low increasing speed rates of the lead vehicle, and in addition for the instance of truck platooning. Here we don\'t consider platooning of HDVs, however the blending of traveler autos and trucks on thruways, when vehicles in front may endeavor to quicken at the rates higher that those achievable by the overwhelming vehicle flow. Way Annual Conference October 2002

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Vehicle Following in Mixed Manual/ACC Passenger Cars/HDV Traffic Speed reactions for the blended manual/ACC movement (4 th vehicle is ACC truck, the rest are manual traveler autos). Parameter k relies on upon position lapse squared. Way Annual Conference October 2002

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Vehicle Following in Mixed Manual/ACC Passenger Cars/HDV Traffic where the position blunder of the ACC is… Position lapse versus time for the ACC Note the crash between the truck and the traveler auto in front. For the reasons of vehicle following in high increasing speed situations, we change the expression for the position blunder addition to have the exponential term directly subject to the position slip. Way Annual Conference October 2002

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Vehicle Following in Mixed Manual/ACC Passenger Cars/HDV Traffic With this alteration, the above situation is mimicked once more: Clearly, the ACC keeps a protected separation from the vehicle ahead at all times. Way Annual Conference October 2002

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Vehicle Following in Mixed Manual/ACC Passenger Cars/HDV Traffic The execution of the 100% manual activity in the same situation is currently recreated. Bando model for the truck driver is utilized, with the safe fancied rate reliant on the two vehicles promptly ahead: PATH Annual Conference October 2002

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Vehicle Following in Mixed Manual/ACC Passenger Cars/HDV Traffic - Environmental Evaluation Compare the collective contamination levels and mileage of the 100% manual movement (traveler autos and trucks) versus blended movement (manual autos and ACC trucks). Ecological assessment model utilized: For traveler autos: CMEM - Comprehensive Modal Emissions Model (UC Riverside, 1998): high devotion model, delicate to drifters. For trucks: Heavy-Duty Diesel Modal Emissions and Fuel Consumption Model (being produced by UC Riverside gathering, TO 4215). Tailpipe discharges of unburnt hydrocarbons HC, carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NO x ), CO 2 and fuel utilization are ascertained and thought about for blended versus manual activity. Way Annual Conference October 2002

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Vehicle Following in Mixed Manual/ACC Passenger Cars/HDV Traffic For the last indicated pace situation in a solitary path vehicle taking after, the figured advantages are given underneath: However, because of the low quickening capacities of the HDVs, there is an expansive position mistake shaped in both blended and manual activity case. In multilane thruway circumstances, this will without a doubt offer ascent to (different) path cut-ins before the truck. Way Annual Conference October 2002

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Lane Change Effects Consider the same rate situation; now vehicles from the contiguous paths cut before the truck, utilizing the crevice shaped as a part of front of it: Speed reactions in blended movement: 4 th vehicle is ACC truck. Position lapse versus time of the ACC. W

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