Impacts of Multiple Stressors on Aquatic Communities in the Prairie Pothole Region .


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Impacts of Various Stressors on Sea-going Groups in the Prairie Pothole Locale. Patrick K. Schoff and Lucinda B. Johnson Common Assets Research Establishment College of Minnesota Duluth. Glenn Guntenspergen US Land Review Patuxent Waterway, Maryland. Carter Johnson
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Impacts of Multiple Stressors on Aquatic Communities in the Prairie Pothole Region Patrick K. Schoff and Lucinda B. Johnson Natural Resources Research Institute University of Minnesota Duluth Glenn Guntenspergen US Geological Survey Patuxent River, Maryland Carter Johnson South Dakota State University Brookings, South Dakota

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Amphibian Stressors pesticides UV exotics rising infections new parasites eutrophication pharmaceuticals drying up fermentation novel predators advancement/living space fracture temperature

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Indicators of Ecosystems in Jeopardy populace diminishments Human the study of disease transmission growths asthma coronary illness Emerging sicknesses of untamed life CWD BSE/vJCD AIDS SARS Ebola Avian Influenza West Nile Virus neighborhood annihilations Wildlife the study of disease transmission Degraded Environment Emerging ailments in people intersex parasites malignancies deformity species eradication colorful/intrusive species

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Prairie Pothole Region Critical freshwater asset territory - reproducing waterfowl - movement stopover - macroinvertebrates - creatures of land and water surge water stockpiling

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Anthropogenic Stressors Affecting the Prairie Pothole Region Climate change expanded temperature diminished dampness UV radiation decreased DOC inputs (?) Agricultural practices overabundance supplements pesticides Habitat rebuilding/pulverization ~50% of wetlands depleted in earlier century remaining wetlands installed in agrarian framework

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temperature precipitation UV-B radiation Stressor Effects on Amphibians Stressors Biological Effects { Global Climate Change quickened improvement safe brokenness species assorted qualities (?) { physiological anxiety invulnerable brokenness malady vulnerability formative oddities living space rebuilding pesticides supplements Agricultural Practices

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Objectives Quantify connections among varying area utilize, land and water proficient group structure and arrangement in the prairie pothole locale. hydroperiod (semi-perpetual v. occasional) edit v. grassland Quantify connections among physical and compound wetland properties on land and water proficient organismal and group reactions. hydroperiod warm administration pH

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Objectives, cont. 3. Measure the impacts of various stressors on wellbeing and organismal reactions of Rana pipiens . abbreviated hydroperiod expanded UV-B radiation 4. Anticipate potential impacts of various stressors on prairie pothole wetlands and related land and water proficient groups.

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Stressor Effects on Amphibians Accelerated Hydroperiod (hotter, less water) speedier advancement littler metamorphs decreased fat stores = lessened wellness Increased UV-B radiation (ozone exhaustion, +/ - diminished DOC) edema mutations hindered resistant capacity mutagenic impacts Atrazine (most ordinarily utilized herbicide) endocrine disturbance (?) - gonadal dysmorphogenesis ( ♂♀ ) - laryngeal muscle lessening (♂) formative postponements

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Approach Landscape scale (Extensive review) connections among land and water proficient group structure, arrive utilize, and wetland hydrologic administration Wetland scale (Intensive review) connections among individual wetlands (hydroperiod, physico-synthetic), arrive utilizes (e.g. pesticides), UV-B, land and water proficient wealth, group structure, and wellbeing Mesocosm scale impacts of various stressors (hydroperiod and pesticide) on Rana pipiens improvement and wellbeing

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extend association

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Multiple Stressors Study Extensive review : Prairie Pothole Region objective = 120 wetlands (2004 = 63 wetlands) 2004, 2005 2 hydroperiod classifications: seasonal semi-changeless 2 utilize classes: row edit grazing/field Intensive review : Prairie Coteau ecoregion objective = 60 wetlands (2003 = 27 wetlands) a bit under review in a progressing hydrological inquire about program 2003 - 2005 Mesocosm study : 2003 pilot concentrate 2004 – 2005 full-scale

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Intensive Study Area Prairie Pothole Region

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Intensive Study (2003 – 2005) Category Parameter Wetland morphology measure; setup; profundity profile; hydrologic administration Habitat vegetative cover maps; arrive utilize; separation to wetlands, fields, streets & structures Water segment persistent temp; sp. conductance; pH; profundity (week by week); ghostly sweeps; UV constriction; pesticide investigation (atrazine); chlorophyll-A Microclimate temperature; dampness; precipitation; overcast cover; wind speed Amphibian people group calling overviews; VES reviews & catching for land and water proficient hatchlings (fortnightly)

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Wetland Temperatures - 2003 Temperature ( o C) Wetland Types

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Water Loss in Wetlands - 2003 Proportion of locales containing water Week in 2003

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Metamorphs Captured – Week 10 Metamorphs gathered Water profundity (cm)

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Wetland pH - 2003 pH Wetland Types

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Wetland Conductivity - 2003 Conductivity ( m S) Wetland Types

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Malformation Prevalence - 2003 % Malformed Wetland Types

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Survey 27 wetlands 7 dry 8 with < 10 metamorphs caught (n = 14) 12 with >10 metamorphs caught (n = 1475) (avg. = 123; territory = 22 - 155) Malformation commonness : metamorphs 1475 contorted people 45 pervasiveness range 0 – 7.8% general predominance 3.1% (Midwest study = 2.0%) Malformations - 2003

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Malformation Prevalence by Wetland Type Wetland Category Wetlands Metas. Malfs. Prev. (%) Semi-lasting crop 1 132 2 1.5 Semi-changeless meadow 8 913 25 2.4 Seasonal crop 1 153 12 7.8 Seasonal grassland 2 277 6 2.2 Total 12 1475 45 3.1%

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DRY 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Extensive Study Blocks (2004) Miles

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Extensive Study (2004 – 2005) Category Parameter Wetland morphology estimate; setup; profundity profile; hydrologic administration Habitat vegetative cover maps; arrive utilize; separation to wetlands, fields, streets, & structures Water section temperature; pH; otherworldly outputs; water shading @ 440 nm Microclimate temperature; mugginess; precipitation; overcast cover; wind speed Amphibian people group calling studies; VES reviews & catching for land and water proficient hatchlings

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Mesocosm Scale Goal – reproduce ecologically important different stressor presentation under controlled conditions: 1. quickened hydroperiod 2. atrazine Hydroperiod 1. typical hydroperiod – drawdown fixing to handle conditions 2. quickened hydroperiod – drawdown at expanded rate Atrazine 1. 0.1 m g/L – found by Hayes and others to bring about gonadal dysmophogenesis 2. 20 m g/L – ordinarily found in ground and surface water in corn-developing regions 3. 200 m g/L – every so often found in surface water

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Mesocosms - 2003 "Pilot year" for mesocosms (poor start constrained choices) survival thickness temperature sustaining atrazine introduction tests: 1) control, no expansion 2) dissolvable (CH3)2CO) 3) atrazine, 20 m g/L 4) atrazine, 200 m g/L Results : restricted improvement no metamorphs Interpretation : suspect water source late gathering of tadpoles long holding time in aquarium high temperatures in mesocosms

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Mesocosms - 2004 Modifications : lake water expansion of shade material protected tubs with straw fruitful early egg mass accumulation constrained holding time (hatchlings exchanged at Gosner arrange 20+)

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9 treatment classes : 1. typical hydrology, no augmentations 2. quickened hydrology, no augmentations 3. ordinary hydrology, solvent control (CH3)2CO) 4. ordinary hydrology, atrazine 0.1 m g/L 5. ordinary hydrology, atrazine 20 m g/L 6. typical hydrology, atrazine 200 m g/L 7. quickened hydrology, atrazine 0.1 m g/L 8. quickened hydrology, atrazine 20 m g/L 9. quickened hydrology, atrazine 200 m g/L Mesocosms - 2004 Treatments (stressors): hydrology: typical or quickened atrazine: 0, 0.1, 20,200 m g/L

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Modeling Multi-bowl wetland complex model in light of WETSIM (Poiani et al. 1996) Consists of cooperating submodel segments: surface water, groundwater, and vegetation. Reenacts changes in water level and vegetation cover for prairie wetland buildings that incorporate 3 hydrologic classes: semi-lasting, regular, impermanent HADCM3 atmosphere situations will be utilized to parameterize show.

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T +3 o C T +3 o C Historic T +3 o C P +20% P - 20% Modeling Climate Change Algona, IA Central Tall Grasslands Crookston, MN Northern Tall Grasslands Minot, ND Northern Mixed Grasslands Watertown, SD Prairie Coteau

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Modeling Climate Change

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Challenges 1. Site accessibility and landowner participation. agriculturist/farmer affectability to specialists absence of "harvest" wetland destinations 2. Who might do wetland examine in a dry spell? 3. UV observing in ceaselessly blustery conditions. 4. Accessibility of target frog ( Rana pipiens ) eggs for mesocosms; changeability because of neighborhood climate & here and now atmosphere conditions. 5. Mesocosms: frog survival metamorph improvement

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This exploration has been upheld by the U.S. EPA Science to Achieve Results (STAR) Multiple Stressors Initiative. RD-83087901-0

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Acknowledgments Dr. Catherine Johnson, National Forest Service Dr. Nels Troelstrup, South Dakota State University Jennifer Olker Milan Angela Rohweder Dena Shelley Katie Brown Deborah Endriss Chandler Schmutzer Denise Gregorie Janna Goldrup Sarah Syria Patti Kramer

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