Improved FUJITA SCALE (EF Scale) 1 A preparation displayed to NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE Silver Spring, Maryland June 28, 2004 Wind Science and Engineering Center Texas Tech UniversitySlide 2
Theodore T. FujitaSlide 3
Limitations of Fujita Scale Difficult to apply reliably insufficient harm pointers Does not represent development quality No conclusive relationship amongst\'s harm and wind speedSlide 4
Fujita Scale Enhancement Project WISE consented to start venture Funding was accessible through NIST Co-PI\'s each have over 30 years involvement with tornado harmSlide 5
Co-PI\'s James R. McDonald, Ph.D., PE. Tornado harm documentation experience Tornado risk appraisal Tornado harm relief Kishor C. Mehta, Ph.D., P.E. Executive of WISE (Retired) Chair ASCE 7 Wind Load Task Committee Internationally perceived analystSlide 6
WISE Strategy Choose a directing Committee Involve numerous clients Develop an arrangement Obtain an accordSlide 7
Steering CommitteeSlide 8
Steering Committee Objectives Organize a gathering of clients Identify key issues Recommend another or changed Fujita Scale Develop techniques to acquire an agreementSlide 9
Fujita Scale Forum March 7-8, 2001 Grapevine, Texas 20 of 26 welcomed members went to Developed systems for an upgraded Fujita ScaleSlide 10
Strategies Define extra harm pointers Correlate appearance of harm with wind speed Preserve verifiable tornado information base Obtain contribution from clientsSlide 11
Damage Indicators (DI\'s) WISE group proposed 28 DI\'s Buildings, structures and trees DI\'s portrayed in subtle element Additional DI\'s can be included futureSlide 12
Degrees of Damage (DOD\'s) Each DI has a few degrees of harm DOD\'s reach from no harm to aggregate demolition DOD\'s are masterminded all together of expanding harm They are a component of wind paceSlide 13
Correlation of Damage and Wind Speed Need expected, upper and lower headed wind speeds for every DOD Expected wind speed in light of "ordinary" conditions Upper and lower bound wind speeds speak to conceivable deviation from the "typical" circumstanceSlide 14
Approach Deterministic Monte Carlo Expert elicitationSlide 15
Expert Elicitation Used effectively to estimate seismic physical parameters Senior Seismic Hazard Assessment Committee (SSHAC – 1997) Experts make best gauges of expected, upper and lower bound wind speeds Follow an all around characterized convention The final product is the most ideal evaluation of the fancied parameterSlide 16
SSHAC Elicitation Process Describe DI\'s and DOD\'s Identify and draw in a board of specialists Discuss issues with specialists; give information Train specialists in elicitation process Conduct singular elicitations and gathering collaborationsSlide 17
SSHAC Elicitation Process Analyze and total elicitations and intention issues Refine wind speed gauges with a few cycles Document and impart procedure and last results Obtain extra companion survey of procedure and resultsSlide 18
Elicitation ExpertsSlide 19
Elicitation Procedure Wind rates are 3-second blasts at 10 m in level open landscape Experts met for one and one-half days Conducted 3 rounds of elicitationSlide 20
Results of Elicitation Name and depiction of DI DOD\'s and assessed wind speeds Order DOD\'s by expanding wind speeds Plot DOD\'s versus wind speed Provide photograph cases of DOD\'sSlide 21
One-and Two-Family Residences (FR12) Typical Construction : Asphalt shingles, tile, slate or metal rooftop covering Flat, peak, hip, mansard or mono-inclined rooftop or mix thereof Plywood/OSB or wood board rooftop deck Prefabricated wood trusses or wood joists and beam development Brick polish, wood boards, stucco, EIFS, vinyl or metal siding Wood or metal stud dividers, solid pieces or protecting solid boards Attached single or twofold carportSlide 22
One-and Two-Family Residences (FR12)Slide 23
One-and Two-Family Residences (FR12)Slide 24
One-and Two-Family Residences (FR12) FR12: DOD4: Uplift of rooftop deck and loss of rooftop covering ( >20%); carport entryway falls outwardSlide 25
One-and Two-Family Residences (FR12) FR12: DOD6: Large areas of rooftop evacuated; most dividers stay standingSlide 26
One-and Two-Family Residences (FR12) FR12: DOD7: Top floor (First floor for this situation) outside dividers fallenSlide 27
One-and Two-Family Residences (FR12) FR12: DOD10: Total decimation of whole buildingSlide 28
Correlation of Fujita Scale and EF Scale Used a second gathering of specialists They allocated Fujita Scale classifications to every DOD Ratings were changed over to 3-second blast middle wind speeds Obtained normal of Fujita Scale wind speedsSlide 29
Correlation of Fujita Scale and EF Scale Performed a relapse examination to get connection between\'s normal Fujita Scale and expected EF Scale wind speeds Regression condition:Slide 30
Correlation of Fujita Scale and EF Scale Wind SpeedsSlide 31
Derived EF Scale Wind Speed RangesSlide 32
Recommended EF Scale Wind Speed RangesSlide 33
EF5 Wind Speed Range We suggest no upper bound on this class Physical upper bound tornado wind speed not known Will evade people accepting most dire outcome imaginable for EF5 classSlide 34
Rating an Individual Building Find DI that matches the building sort and development Observe the harm and match to one of the DOD\'s Determine if wind velocity to bring about watched harm is higher, lower or equivalent to the normal worth inside the wind speed rangeSlide 35
Rating an Individual Building The alloted EF Scale rating is the one whose scope of wind pace contains the assessed wind pace to bring about the DOD. Extra DI\'s ought to be considered in allocating and EF Scale to a tornado occasionSlide 36
Rating a Tornado Event Conduct a flying overview to distinguish potential DI\'s and to characterize degree of harm way Identify 2 or more DI\'s that appear to show the most elevated wind speed in the way Locate these DI\'s inside the harm way Follow ventures for individual structures or structures and report comes aboutSlide 37
Rating a Tornado Event Considering a few DI\'s, assessment greatest tornado wind speed Assign EF Scale class in view of the greatest evaluated wind speed Record premise for EF Scale rating Record other correlated information identifying with the tornado occasionSlide 38
Presentations and Workshops Fujita Symposium, January 2000 National Severe Storms Workshop, March 2001 U.S. National Conference on Wind Engineering, June 2001 AMS National Conference, January 2002 21 st Conference on Severe Local Storms, August 2002 11 th International Conference on Wind Engineering, June 2003 22 nd Conference on Sever Local Storms, October 2004 (Paper acknowledged)Slide 39
WISE Website www.wind.ttu.eduSlide 40
Conclusion We have taken after the procedures of guiding board of trustees and discussion Provided extra harm markers Established relationship amongst\'s harm and wind speed Determined connection amongst\'s Fujita and EF Scales Presented our work in various settings
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